Agenda 2000: A package
of measures to reform the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and
the EU's structural and cohesion funds. Proposals by the EU Commission
in 1997 were agreed in amended form at the Berlin European Summit
in March 1999.
Alternative Crops Technology Interaction Network
(ACTIN): A United Kingdom industry-led
initiative to promote the use of raw materials derived from agricultural
crops as sustainable, biodegradable and CO2 neutral
replacements for petrochemical feedstocks.
Arable Area Payment Scheme (AAPS):
EU scheme designed to reduce surplus production by requiring a
proportion of arable land to be removed from production and providing
an annual area payment as compensation.
Biodiesel: Diesel fuel
produced from plant oils.
Bioethanol: Ethanol produced
from plant sugar or starch using a fermentation process.
Biomass: Crops or waste
residues which can be converted into energy by fermentation or
Blair House Agreement: An
agreement whereby cumulative penalties are applied to area payments
if the annual area of oilseeds grown in the EU exceeds 4.885 mil
ha. The agreement is designed to protect US exports from
animal feed derived from subsidised EU oilseed production.
Climate Change Levy: A
proposed tax on energy use by business.
Crambe: A type of brassica
which is a source of erucic acid.
Cuphea: There are many
species of the Cuphea plant, which originates in Mexico and contains
medium chain fatty acids similar to those in palm oil. The oils
have applications in the detergent industry.
Foresight: A United Kingdom
programme under which panels are set up to investigate possible
future needs, opportunities and threats in different sectors,
and to decide what can be done to meet the challenges.
Under an agreement with the EU, the United Kingdom receives an
abatement of roughly two-thirds of the difference between its
gross contribution to, and receipts from, the European Union budget.
Fossil Fuel Levy: A levy
on all suppliers of electricity to enable the industry to meet
the above-market costs of contracting for renewable generating
capacity under NFFO orders.
Geotextile matting: Material
made from natural fibres used to prevent soil erosion.
Hill Livestock Compensatory Allowances: A
United Kingdom funded scheme which provides aid for the production
of cattle and sheep in hill areas.
Interactive European Network for Industrial Crops
(IENICA): An EU funded collaborative networking
system to link key individuals from industry, government and science
in order to identify opportunities for industrial crops or applications.
Life-Cycle Assessment: A
research technique designed to measure all the inputs and
outputs of a process from production to final use.
MacSharry reforms: A package
of measures, introduced in 1992 by the then EU Agricultural
Commissioner, Ray MacSharry, aimed at reducing the costs of the
Non crop specific payment:
Introduced under Agenda 2000 to provide the same annual area payment
for cereals, oilseeds and set-aside.
Non-food crops: Crops
grown for industrial purposes, other than for food.
Non Fossil Fuels Obligation (NFFO): Government
programme which currently requires the electricity industry
to contract for specified amounts of renewable generating capacity
from renewable sources.
Oatec Project: Research
project into new markets for oats funded by the Home Grown Cereals
Project ARBRE: Project
set up by Yorkshire Water to develop a renewable, sustainable
and efficient energy source based on short rotation coppice and
forestry residue material.
Quinoa: An annual plant
cultivated in South America for its farinaceous seeds.
The concept of using plant biochemistry, with sunlight as an energy
source, to produce bulk chemicals.
Set-aside: Land on which
farmers may not grow food crops under the AAPS and may only, under
specific conditions, grow certain nonfood crops.
Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow:
Willow which can be used for energy generation and regenerates
quickly after cutting.
Stokes aster: Contains
long chain fatty acids, particularly vernolic acid, which has
applications in the plastics, paints and adhesives industries.
Surfactant: A substance,
such as a detergent, that reduces the surface tension of a liquid,
allowing it to foam or to be absorbed by solids (a wetting agent).
The term surfactant is a contraction of "surface-active agent".
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs):
Small molecules, typically composed of short-chain hydrocarbons,
that exist largely in the gas phase at ambient temperatures. Reactions
of VOCs in polluted air can produce harmful gases such as ozone.