Specialised terms and abbreviations
Watt The basic measure
of electrical power, being the rate of energy transfer equivalent
to 1 ampere of electric current flowing under a pressure of 1
kV Kilovolt: one thousand
kW Kilowatt: one
thousand watts of electricity - the power consumption of a 1 bar
kWh Kilowatt hour:
one thousand watt-hours, or 1 kW supplied for 1 hour - the normal
unit of electricity supply for domestic purposes.
MW Megawatt (1,000
GW Gigawatt (1,000
MW) - the output of a typical large coal-fired power station.
TW Terawatt (1,000
GW - or a million Megawatts)
(1,000 GWh - or a million Megawatt-hours)
g/kWh grams per kilowatt-hour
- used to measure the emissions caused by the generation of one
unit of electricity.
MtC Megatonne of carbon
- used as a measure of carbon emissions.
Mtoe Megatonne of
oil equivalent - used to measure equivalence between different
p/kWh pence per kilowatt-hour
- the cost or price of a unit of electricity.
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS REPORT
BPVA British Photovoltaic
BWEA British Wind
CAP Common Agricultural
CHP Combined heat
of Renewable Energy Associations.
CPRE Council for the
Protection of Rural England.
DETR Department of
the Environment, Transport and the Regions.
DfID Department for
DG XII & DG XVII Directorates-General
XII (Science, Research and Development) and XVII (Energy) of the
dnc Declared net capacity.
DTI Department of
Trade and Industry.
ETSU Energy Technology
EWA Energy from Waste
LFG Landfill Gas.
LGA Landfill Gas Association.
MAFF Ministry of Agriculture,
Fisheries and Food.
MEP Member of the
MoD Ministry of Defence.
MSW Municipal solid
NFFO Non-Fossil Fuel
Obligation arrangements in England and Wales (in this Report,
though, also including the Scottish SROs and Northern Ireland's
NI-NFFOs unless indicated otherwise).
NFPA Non-Fossil Purchasing
NIE Northern Ireland
NI-NFFO NFFO arrangements
in Northern Ireland.
OFFER Office of Electricity
R-122 ETSU's supporting
analysis published alongside DTI's March 1999 consultation document
New and Renewable Energy: prospects in the UK for the 21st
R&D Research and
RETA Review of Electricity
RSPB Royal Society
for the Protection of Birds.
SRO Scottish Renewables
Order - NFFO arrangements in Scotland.
STPG Severn Tidal
WWF The World-Wide
Fund for Nature.
Base load The minimum
load on the electricity system, normally met by the most cost-effective
Biogas A methane-rich
gas produced during the anaerobic decay of organic matter.
Combined heat and power or cogeneration
The production of electrical energy and another
form of useful energy (such as heat or steam) through the sequential
use of energy.
Declared net capacity See
paragraph 173 of this Report.
Embedded generation Generation
connected to a regional rather than the national distribution
network - see paragraph 184 of this Report.
Landfill gas Biogas
(qv) from rubbish in landfill sites.
Load Factor The ratio
of the electrical energy produced by a generating unit for the
period of time considered to the electrical energy that could
have been produced at continuous full-power operation during the
Net Metering Arrangement
whereby small-scale generators of renewable electricity receive
payment for surplus electricity exported to the distribution system
at the same unit rate they pay as normal domestic consumers when
their own generation falls short of their needs. Such consumers
are thus charged only for their net consumption - the difference
between their imports and exports. Because the effect is as if
the electricity meter runs in reverse while electricity is being
exported, this is sometimes known as "reverse metering".
Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation Orders
made under the Electricity Act 1985 providing for generators of
electricity from renewable sources to receive higher prices for
Primary energy The
total energy contained in all the original fuel sources used.
This discounts inefficiencies in converting those primary sources
into electricity, heat or mechanical power.
Pool price A measure
of the market price of electricity - see paragraphs 10-12 of Appendix
Reverse metering See
"net metering" above.
Technical potential The
theoretical potential of the resource - see paragraph 166 of this Report.