The UK’s relations with Turkey Contents

Contents

Terms of Reference

Summary

Introduction

1 An “understanding” relationship, during a crucial period for Turkey and the UK

An “understanding” relationship

The coup attempt, and the UK’s distinctive understanding of Turkey

A contrast with the European Union in particular

A divided society in Turkey

A cultural and political divide

The implications of the referendum on expanding the presidency’s power

2 A “strategic” relationship, and its implications for Turkey and the UK

A “strategic” relationship

The enhancement of trade

Security co-operation

‘TF-X’, and other arms sales

Turkey’s role in the fight against ISIL

Turkey’s role in the migrant and refugee crisis

Whether Brexit will impact the strategic relationship

The human rights imperative, and its relationship with trade and defence ties

The influence of the EU and the UK on human rights in Turkey

The role of trade in securing UK influence in Turkey

3 The coup attempt, and the ‘Gülenists’

The coup attempt of 15 July

The Turkish government and the Gülenists

Opposing narratives

Reports of a past alliance, and reasons for its collapse

The basis of the case against the Gülenists

Description as ‘terrorists’

Confessions

The extent of the Gülenist movement, and concerns about circumstantial evidence

Court cases

The knowledge of the FCO about the Gülenists’ role in the coup attempt

4 The Turkish government’s response to the threat from the coup attempt

The State of Emergency

Detentions and dismissals after the coup attempt

Dismissal by decree

The range of sectors affected

Means of appeal and redress

5 The Turkish government’s response to the threat from the PKK

The threat from the PKK, and the collapse of the ceasefire

Human rights in the war against the PKK

Curfews

Deaths of civilians, and damage to civilian property

Allegations of torture

A lack of access for external observers

The PKK, the YPG, and Turkey’s policy in northern Syria

6 The status of democracy in Turkey

Turkey’s role as a democratic example

Risks and restrictions to democracy in Turkey

Elections

Freedom of expression

Civil society, academia, and freedom of assembly

The political opposition, and the case of the HDP

The judiciary

Conclusions and recommendations

Formal Minutes

Witnesses

Published written evidence

List of Reports from the Committee during the current Parliament





23 March 2017