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Mr. Andrew Mitchell: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development to which (a) World Bank and (b) United Nations Development Programme trust funds his Department has contributed in each of the last three years; and how much it has provided in each case in each such year. 
Mr. Michael Foster: Tables containing details of the Department for International Development's (DFID) contributions to (a) the World Bank and (b) the United Nations Development Programme trust funds in each of the last three years will be placed in the Library of the House.
Mr. Oaten: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much aid the UK has provided for Liberia (a) bilaterally and (b) through the United Nations in each of the last five years; and how much is planned to be provided for Liberia in the next spending period for which figures are available. 
Mr. Michael Foster:
Details on the UKs bilateral expenditure and imputed share of multilateral official development assistance (ODA) are contained in the
DFID publication Statistics on International Development. This publication is available from the Library and online at:
|UK expenditure in Liberia, 2003-04 to 2007-08|
|Total UK bilateral expenditure||UK imputed share of UN expenditure|
|DFID Liberia Programme allocations|
Annette Brooke: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development pursuant to the answer of 11 February 2009, Official Report, column 2118W, on loans (1) what assessment he has made of trends in interest rates on microfinance loans in Africa over the last 12 months; and if he will make a statement; 
Mr. Michael Foster: The Department for International Development (DFID) supports the overall monitoring of microfinance through the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP), a multi-donor partnership working to expand access to finance, including microfinance.
the rates offered by most microfinance institutions (MFIs) compare favourably to informal finance, supplier credit, and the few other alternatives that would be available to MFI clients. In sub-Saharan Africa, interest rates also dropped at a rate of 1.4 percentage points from 2003 to 2006.
This is confirmed by DFID research in Malawi where the commercial banking sector reaches less than 5 per cent. of the population and charges interest of about 16-20 per cent.; down from about 30 per cent. five years ago. Most smallholder farmers do not have anything a commercial bank would consider as security: land is not titled and smallholders in Malawi have an exceptionally low asset base. Microfinance is reaching another 5 per cent. of the households and real interest rates from
rural microfinance institutions are estimated at around 45 per cent. However 90 per cent. of Malawians have no access to financial services.
Beyond Malawi, several other household surveys carried out recently in Africa with DFID funding show that the absolute level of interest rate is not one of the detrimental factors that constrain poor peoples access to financial services, including microfinance. The promotion of transparency, competition and financial literacy, is very important and in the long run can have a bearing on the level of interest. This is why DFID has recently launched the £4 million Financial Education Fund (FEF), to back the best ideas to help raise financial literacy among poor consumers and small businesses in Africa. The FEF will operate across Africa. In its first round of calls for projects, FEF has received 110 concept notes that are under review.
Mr. Ivan Lewis: Between October 2002 and December 2008, DFID spent a total of £3.045 million in support of land tenure reform in Rwanda. From October 2002 to July 2004, £276,000 was spent on providing a Land Policy Specialist and conducting studies to help the Government of Rwanda develop a new Land Law and Policy. The Land Law was enacted in 2005, and by the end of the programme, £2.976 million will have been spent developing and piloting a system for providing secure land title to landholders. DFIDs Country Plan for Rwanda (2008 to 2012), proposes supporting the roll-out of a similar land tenure programme nationwide.
Mr. Ivan Lewis: Zimbabwe has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. Currently, 15.6 per cent. of the population aged 15 to 54 years are infected with HIV. This amounts to about 1.3 million people. Of these, about 340,000 are in need of antiretroviral medicines. About 120,000 children under 15 are infected with HIV.
Mr. Ivan Lewis: Zimbabwe has one of the highest rates of HIV prevalence in the world. Although the rate has fallen to 15.6 per cent. of adults aged 15 to 54 years, it remains the main cause of illness and early death. Of those infected, 56 per cent. are women. Because most people in Zimbabwe, as in other highly affected countries, do not know their HIV status, it is difficult to calculate the number of households with at least one HIV positive member. However, households that are affected often experience multiple infections (in one or both parents and possibly in their young children) making HIV catastrophic for the welfare of all members. Although there are no reliable statistics, as many as one in eight households may be affected in some way by HIV/AIDS.
Mr. Vara: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how many aid workers from each aid agency have been killed other than by accident in Zimbabwe in each of the last 10 years. 
Mr. Ivan Lewis: A large number of aid agencies have worked, and are working, in Zimbabwe over the last 10 years. The UK Government do not keep records about their activities; nor would we be notified regarding their entry or withdrawal from the country.
Mr. Ivan Lewis: The Department of International Developments programme in Zimbabwe has expanded steadily in the last 10 years as the humanitarian need in the country has grown as indicated in the following table:
|DFID aid to Zimbabwe over 10 years|
Since 2002, all DFID programme money has been delivered through the UN and other aid agenciesnone of it has passed through the Government of Zimbabwe. This year the Department will spend £49 million on ongoing programmes to meet the essential needs of ordinary Zimbabweans and to address the dire humanitarian situation.
Mrs. Laing: To ask the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills what the cost of maintaining the databases owned and managed by (a) his Department and its predecessor and (b) their agencies was in (i) 2006, (ii) 2007 and (iii) 2008. 
Mr. Simon: Database maintenance costs in the Department are contained in the outsourced ICT contract service charges and the cost of staff involved in the management and analysis of information. The Department does not separately identify database management expenditure and to separate out the cost of maintaining databases would entail disproportionate cost.
Mr. Laws: To ask the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills what his Departments capital spending (a) was in each year from 2001-02 to 2007-08 and (b) is planned to be in each year from 2008-09 to 2014-15 in 2005-06 prices; and if he will make a statement. 
Information for 2001-02 is not available. Departmental capital spending from 2002-03 to 2007-08 is shown in table 1 following. Capital spending figures prior to the formation of the Department for Innovation Universities and Skills (DIUS) in June 2007 are derived from expenditure figures of predecessor Departments.
|Table 1: DIUS capital spending 2002-03 to 2007-08|
DAR 2007-08 figures were provisional at time of publication.
DIUS Departmental Report 2008
Expenditure plans for 2008-09 to 2010-11, in 2005-06 prices, are shown in table 2 following. These figures are based on the figures published in the departmental annual report 2008 and reflect capital brought forward as announced in the pre Budget report 2008. The figures are adjusted using the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Deflators published by Treasury on 23 December 2008.
|Table 2: DIUS planned capital spending 2008-09 to 2010-11|
|£ million 2005-06 prices|
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