Examination of Witnesses (Questions 140
WEDNESDAY 1 NOVEMBER 2000
140. It is the first time we have heard it,
as a Committee, and we have discussed this many times with you.
Do you think that you are up to the job, Mr Corbett, is it too
big for you?
(Mr Corbett) That is not a matter for me. As you know,
I tendered my resignation when it was clear that the responsibility
for the crash was Railtrack's, and the Board, and with a certain
amount of support, deemed that I should continue. If people do
not think I am the right man for the job then I will go, I have
made that quite clear.
141. Can I put to you a proposition, Mr Corbett,
please. Given that the planned replacement rail at Hatfield was
programmed to take place in two phases, which you have advised
us about, and, according to your statement of 19 October, where
you say that the second phase of that, which was due to take place
in November, probably should have been done sooner, and, secondly,
the fact that you have advised us today that you yourself and
your senior management knew nothing at all about the decision
that was taken to close the north of Carlisle West Coast Main
Line until after the decision was taken, the proposition I want
to put to you is this, that there were two reasons why Railtrack
decided to check the rails and 1,800 sites have been checked.
One, I think, understandably, was for safety reasons; and the
second was that you really had got no idea about the state that
the track was in, because your management systems were simply
not in place to give you the confidence that you require to judge
that your maintenance programme, your management structures, your
monitoring and enforcement procedures, were robust enough to give
you, as a company, at senior level, the confidence that you require
in the railway system. I want to put that proposition to you,
and ask for your reaction to it?
(Mr Corbett) I think the response post Hatfield to
check everything was the right thing. We do know track quality,
we do know that for every mile of the track. We have a detailed
plan in place for broken rails. The maintenance contractor has
his maintenance records. We do not yet have the proper asset management
system in place; when I joined, at the end of 1997, there was
one being developed, it was not the right system and we cancelled
it the next year. We did not press ahead immediately with the
full-blown asset management system because we had to get ready
for Year 2000, and we are pressing ahead with that now. We do
have processes in place, those processes have delivered improvements
in track quality and fewer broken rails and better train performance,
and everything. But, you are right, it is entirely right that
after a Hatfield you do go out and check everything, and part
of that checking is obviously the state of the track, and, so
far so good, no other rails like Hatfield. Part of it also is
reviewing our management processes, so that if there are failures
in those management processes it does not happen again; we can
make the change.
142. But you know the point I am putting to
you. I would have thought it reasonable to assume that your management
and monitoring structures, vis-a"-vis your contractors,
were robust enough for you to be confident about the state of
the railway before entering into this blitz programme you have
entered into, understandably, as I say, for safety reasons, I
do not think that many would argue about that, although it is
a difficult decision to take. But surely it is reasonable to say
why did you have to do this; was it not because you had got no
confidence in the management structures and the monitoring structures
in your sub-contractors that would convince you that the railway
system was, in fact, safe?
(Mr Corbett) No, I have confidence in the processes;
we will, I think, have to tighten the processes when we get into
the details of the inquiry. But I did not have confidence about
143. You are waiting until you get the result
of the inquiry before you look at your management structure?
(Mr Corbett) You cannot change a management process
immediately, you actually have to get into it and you have to
think about it and come up with the options, and we will do that
as fast as we can. What I did not have confidence in our knowledge
of gauge corner cracking, and the speed at which it was propagating
through the rail; and that was the main reason, that and safety
were the reasons why we are carrying out these checks.
144. You have talked to us about the ultrasound
machines and you have talked about the trains that put out the
red paint, to indicate the faults. Has as much testing in that
way been done over the last three years as was done in the past,
or have you increased or reduced the amount of testing?
(Mr Corbett) We have increased the ultrasonic testing
in the last couple of years, to deal with broken rails.
145. By how much?
(Mr Corbett) It is different for different parts of
the network. The high-speed lines have a different regime from
the slow speeds. We have increased as we speak, in the last few
months we have increased the rate at which the high-speed track-recording
car goes round the network, and we have ordered another two, and
one will arrive next month.
146. I am told that you had correspondence with
one of the members of our Committee some time ago, saying that
there were these wonderful machines, "These multi-purpose
vehicles from Germany are intended to be in use this autumn and
winter. There are currently some technical problems but they will
soon be here," and they have still not arrived; that is in
(Mr Corbett) Do you want to give an update on that,
Chris; they have arrived but they have not been let onto the track
(Mr Leah) Yes. The multi-purpose vehicles came on
board, in the first instance, to help us with leaf fall, for frost
precautions, and they can do other things. They had been withdrawn,
they are here, they had been withdrawn because there was some,
shall we say, defect on them which needed to be put right. Hopefully,
they will start to come back into service next week, that is the
147. So how much actual testing of the line
is going on; is it the same amount or more?
(Mr Leah) It is more. There are two types of testing.
The first is the hand-held testing which the contractors do themselves,
they have to do it, it is in the standard, in the line standard,
when they find a fault, and, of course, the detection helps find
that fault; that is continuing on as it has been done on BR. What
was not done at the back end of BR, or even at the front end of
Railtrack, was the use of the ultrasonic test unit itself; this
had not been used at the back end of the days of British Rail.
We have brought that into use now, it has been operating for nearly
a year, it is part of the broken rail programme, we are now sweeping
the main routes once every two to three months with the ultrasonic
148. Right; but at Hatfield you did that and
it did not bring out the result, so the equipment was not working,
is that right?
(Mr Middleton) Can I just clarify that point. This
will come out in the investigation. I do not think it was a question
of the equipment not working, I think it was a question that they
did not get a signal from the ultrasonic beam when it was hitting
the rail because of the condition of the head of the rail, and
the standard does allow for that and gives instructions on what
to do. What we do not know, and that will come out in the inquiry,
is why that instruction was not followed.
149. Right; so the equipment worked but someone
did not take the right action following that?
(Mr Middleton) That appears to be the case but we
do not know that yet, it is subject to the inquiry.
150. You also said, earlier on, that you reintroduced
the process of grinding; when did grinding stop and how much money
did you save as a result of stopping grinding of track?
(Mr Middleton) It stopped in 1995.
151. And how much money was saved as a result
(Mr Middleton) I do not have that number, I am afraid.
Mr Bennett: Was it a significant amount?
152. You can give us a note on that.
(Mr Middleton) We can give you a note, yes.
(Mr Corbett) We started again last year.
153. Can I ask, very quickly, overhead power
lines on the railways, are they going to be much more robust when
the West Coast Main Line finally is completed, or are they going
to be subject to storms and gales?
(Mr Middleton) The overhead catenary is being completely
replaced as part of the West Coast project.
154. I understand that. I asked you was it going
to be more robust?
(Mr Middleton) And it will be done to a more resilient
155. And what about rubbish that is left after
contractors have worked? I was actually quite impressed at Euston
that the contractor there seemed to be clearing up the stuff;
but, most of the rest of the West Coast Main Line, you can see
stuff left along the railway lines, at the side of them, some
of it has been there 20 years, but a lot of it has been left in
the last two or three years.
(Mr Corbett) A month ago Chris and I had a meeting
with all the maintenance contractors and we said that we had to
deal with this once and for all, and there is a programme in place
which will get it all sorted out by ...
(Mr Leah) All the sites are being identified, the
programme being put in place, a blitz up to April and then it
will be about 12 months until it is all cleared. There is a lot
of both old engineers' stuff, engineers' material from jobs which
have recently been done, plus domestic rubbish as well; we want
to clear the whole lot away.
156. We did, of course, draw your attention
to this in our report in 1998.
(Mr Corbett) Yes.
157. And you have now discovered that you need
another 12 months to get it right?
(Mr Leah) No; it will be progressively done until
it is completed.
158. Just following on from Mr Bennett's question,
could the fact that grinding was stopped for four years have been
a factor in the Hatfield accident?
(Mr Corbett) I think that is a very good question.
And I think the fact that the rate of rail renewal under BR and
in the early part of Railtrack, combined with the deterioration
in track quality between 1994 and 1996, may turn out to have been
one of the causes for the increase in broken rails in 1998-99,
and I think that is something that the inquiry is going to have
to look at.
159. Finally, from me, I hate to ask it at this
time but where are we on transferring more freight from road to
rail, if you are to meet your objective?
(Mr Corbett) The ten-year plan has an 80 per cent
growth target, and we are busy working up a new agreement with
EWS, and we are working closely with the Regulator's office on
getting a structure in place so that that can be driven.