|Previous Section||Back to Table of Contents||Lords Hansard Home Page|
To ask Her Majesty's Government what conclusions they have drawn from reports that three teenage girls have had a total of 24 NHS abortions; what costs were incurred; and what assessment has been made of the impact on the physical and psychological health of the girls involved.[HL515]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): It would not be appropriate to comment on individual cases. The decision to terminate a pregnancy rests with the woman and her doctors.
It is important for women in Great Britain to be able to access safe, legal abortion services; the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended) makes provision for this. Any abortion performed outside the terms of the Abortion Act 1967 is illegal.
Improving sexual health by reducing unintended pregnancies is very important, particularly for young people. Improving Outcomes and Supporting Transparency: A Public Health Outcomes Framework for England 2013-16, which was published on 23 January 2012 includes an indicator for under-18 conceptions. A copy has been placed in the Library.
The Government recognise that easy access to the full range of contraception provision is an important part of healthcare, which helps people to make informed decisions about how to avoid unintended pregnancy and plan their families. All women opting to terminate a pregnancy should on each occasion be given advice on the various methods of contraception and supplies, of their chosen method. Many local areas are providing tailored, ongoing support to young women undergoing abortions to help reduce the risk of further unintended pregnancies.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they will increase their response to the food and nutrition crisis in the countries of the Sahel region of Africa in the light of the number of appeals across the region and of the growing number of cases of malnutrition.[HL477]
Baroness Northover: The United Nations (UN) currently estimates that the numbers of people at risk of food shortages across the Sahel region of West Africa in 2012 is 18 million, with 8 million of these being in need of immediate assistance.
Admission rates to therapeutic treatment centres are on the rise. Across the Sahel, UNICEF estimate that up to 1.5 million children under the age of five will suffer from severe acute malnutrition-the worst form of malnutrition.
Currently overall humanitarian requirements across the Sahel are estimated by the UN at £600 million. Following the imminent launch of new UN appeals, the needs for the Sahel by the end of June 2012 may be significantly higher.
The UK Government responded early to the food crisis in the Sahel. UK funds currently support over 400,000 of the most vulnerable people across the region. We will consider additional funding in the light of these new and revised appeals.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they will use their development of the Sahel Resilience Strategy to expand social protection in the region to improve access to aid in the case of an emerging hunger crisis.[HL478]
Baroness Northover: The UK Government have been a major supporter of social protection programmes in Africa and recognises that providing poor people with social safety nets helps reduce their vulnerability to food crises. In drought-prone countries where the Department for International Development (DfID) has bilateral development programmes, we have made major investments in social protection programmes, including the Productive Safety Net Programme in Ethiopia and the Hunger Safety Net Programme in Kenya.
In the Sahel, we recognise that it is vital to expand social protection programmes to protect people from future food crises. Without bilateral programmes in the region, DFID cannot provide direct support to national social protection programmes; however our multilateral partners-notably the World Bank and the United Nations-do support social safety net programmes in the Sahel.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they intend to use the Economic Community of West African States project and the forthcoming G20 discussions to propose an accountable system of strategic and emergency food reserves in the Sahel. [HL479]
Baroness Northover: We are engaging and monitoring progress on the PREPARE system, which is the Economic Community of West African States' (ECOWAS) proposal for a pilot emergency humanitarian food reserve in the region. We welcome ECOWAS's commitment to the issue of regional food security and encourage them to move this forward, in consultation with member states and donors. We do have some concerns about certain aspects of the design, for example why food transfers are the only option considered; therefore we believe more work is needed on the proposal.
Whilst the G20 continues to be supportive of the ECOWAS pilot project for emergency humanitarian food reserves and is keen to see it make progress, this issue will not be a specific focus for this year's G20 summit in Los Cabos.
To ask Her Majesty's Government what regulations control the use of Roundup as a pre-harvest desiccant on food crops; what, if any, measurements of Roundup residues are required to be made before cereal or other harvested crops enter the food chain either as animal or human food ingredients; whether imported grain or soya are tested in the United Kingdom for such residues; what are the maximum residue limits; and how often they have been exceeded in each of the last five years.[HL181]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Lord Taylor of Holbeach): Roundup (containing the active substance glyphosate) is regulated in the UK by Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009. The operation of the regulation is underpinned in Great Britain by the Plant Protection Products Regulations 2011 and in Northern Ireland by the Plant Protection Products Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2011.
Authorisations for the use of Roundup are supported by data that indicate that residues (of glyphosate) expected to arise in foods or feedstuffs as a result of that use are within acceptable levels. The assessment takes into account residues that may arise in animals intended for human consumption as a result of eating treated feed.
Maximum residue levels (MRLs) are set for foods marketed in the EU, including foods imported from third countries, reflecting the highest amount of residues expected to arise from the authorised use of pesticides. It is the responsibility of those putting food and feed into the supply chain to ensure that they comply with MRLs. Those set for glyphosate in cereals and soya are as follows:
Imported grain and soya have not been tested for residues under the UK's monitoring programme for pesticide residues. However, grain grown in the UK and food products that contain wheat or soya from any country of origin and are available to UK consumers are included in the monitoring programme and are tested for residues of glyphosate. Bread is tested every year, wheat flour and soya products less frequently. In the past five years, no residues of glyphosate have been detected in these products at levels indicative of residues above the MRL in the unprocessed wheat or soya.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence (Lord Astor of Hever): Personnel deployed on specified operations, including in Afghanistan, and on board ships supporting those operations, benefit from the Enduring Free Mail Service. This is a joint venture between the British Forces Post Office and the Royal Mail and enables friends and family members to send packages from the UK weighing up to two kilograms free of charge.
Personnel in Afghanistan receive their mail through local military distribution arrangements. Mail is delivered to troops deployed in Forward Bases as circumstances permit. Where this is not practicable, mail is held at main bases until their return.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they have put in place contingency plans for the re-allocation of design and building contracts for warships and other defence equipment to English, Welsh and Northern Irish enterprises in the event that Scotland separates from the United Kingdom.[HL499]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence (Lord Astor of Hever): The Government are not making plans for independence as we are confident that people in Scotland will continue to support the Union in any referendum.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they have conducted a formal assessment as to whether the level of financial support they provide for asylum-seeking families meets their obligations under Article 27 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Article 11 of the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. [HL570]
The Minister of State, Home Office (Lord Henley): Support paid to asylum-seeking families is currently under review, in order to assess whether they continue to meet the Government's obligation to provide for "essential living needs", as set out in the Asylum Support Regulations 2000. The Government are satisfied that this test, provided for by Section 95 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, is compatible with
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA143
Lord Henley: Support paid to asylum seeking families is currently under review, in order to assess whether it continues to meet the Government's obligation to prevent asylum seekers becoming destitute and to enable them to meet their "essential living needs", as set out in the Asylum Support Regulations 2000. The support is expected to be temporary in its nature, and is paid in addition to fully equipped accommodation, with utility bills paid. The rate paid in respect of 16 and 17 year-olds is lower than the rate paid to children, though higher than that paid to adults, to reflect the fact that 16 and 17 year-old asylum seekers are not required to continue in full time education and are, therefore, in a position more akin to that of an adult.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether children's views were taken into account in the development of the asylum support system and in particular the Azure payment card scheme; and, if so, how. [HL572]
The Azure payment card is the means by which failed asylum seekers supported under Section 4 of the 1999 Act obtain food and other essential living needs from supermarkets and other retail outlets. It replaced the previous payment system whereby these goods were obtained through vouchers. Children's views were not specifically taken into account before the change to the Azure card, but a wide range of voluntary sector organisations that work with children in the asylum system contributed their views.
Lord Henley: There has been no formal assessment, but regular meetings are held with the voluntary sector organisations that the UK Border Agency funds to assist people who need to use the Azure card in order to obtain food and other essential goods. One of the issues raised at the meetings is the difficulty some people have experienced in finding retail outlets that accept the card and the particular impact this has on those who have children. This is one of the reasons
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA144
To ask Her Majesty's Government what effect the Local Medical Committee conference motion calling for the abolition of work capability assessments, passed on 22 May, will have on the management of work capability assessments conducted by ATOS Healthcare.[HL458]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Work and Pensions (Lord Freud): The contract between ATOS Healthcare and DWP to deliver face-to-face assessments as part of the Work Capability Assessment is due to run until August 2015, with the option of a further two-year extension. The contract is under constant review to ensure that it delivers best value for money. As the department has already made clear, we will reopen a tendering process for the contract before 2015.
The quality of ATOS Healthcare's reports is also subject to stringent quality checks and audit, and the work of all healthcare professionals is subjected to random quality audit by a system agreed with the department and conducted by experienced medical auditors within ATOS Healthcare. The quality of ATOS Healthcare's audit is validated by senior medical auditors from ATOS Healthcare and doctors working for the Chief Medical Adviser to the DWP.
The department is committed to continuously improving the Work Capability Assessment to ensure that it is as fair and accurate as possible. Professor Malcolm Harrington's independent reviews have played and continue to play an important role in this.
To ask Her Majesty's Government what estimate they have made of the number of adults with autism who will not be able to supply evidence of their condition when undergoing the new personal independence payment assessment as they no longer have access to bodies that provide relevant evidence after being signed off from children's services. [HL418]
To ask Her Majesty's Government what advice they offer to adults with autism who cannot provide the evidence required when undergoing the new personal independence assessment as they no longer have access to support services which could provide such evidence after being signed off from children's services.[HL419]
We want the assessment for Personal Independence Payment to be based on the best and most appropriate evidence, including information from claimants, from professionals involved in supporting them and, in most cases, gathered during a face-to-face consultation between the claimant and an independent health professional.
We recognise that disabled people are experts in their own lives and as such they will be at the heart of the evidence-gathering process. They will be able to provide information through a tailored claim form, along with any supporting evidence they have that they feel appropriate. They will also be able to advise us on those professionals involved in supporting them, such as from their GPs, a specialist, social workers or support services, who we may wish to contact to seek information on the individual's circumstances.
The exact evidence used will vary, depending on individual cases. In most cases we expect the health professional carrying out the assessment to have a face-to-face consultation with the claimant, allowing an in-depth look at their circumstances and how their health conditions or impairments affect their everyday lives. Individuals will be able to bring another person with them, such as a family member, carer or supporting professional, to help them during the consultation or remove any anxiety they may have.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Earl Attlee on 15 May (WA 3), whether they will determine the non-duty revenue and costs of transit flights into London to inform discussions on building a third runway at Heathrow, or other plans to increase airport capacity in the region.[HL461]
Earl Attlee: The Government do not support a third runway at Heathrow. The Government intend to publish a consultation on a draft Aviation Policy Framework and a call for evidence on options for maintaining the UK's international aviation connectivity later this summer. The Government aim to adopt the final Aviation Policy Framework next spring.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they will make representations to the Government of Bangladesh about the safety of Ms Zeba Khan, an opposition politician, once she returns to Bangladesh
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA146
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): We have repeatedly urged the Bangladeshi authorities to do all they can to prevent and investigate disappearances in Bangladesh.
In a recent press conference, the UK High Commissioner to Bangladesh, and ambassadors of eight other European countries, called on the Bangladesh authorities to conduct thorough investigations into all disappearances.
To ask Her Majesty's Government how much they have budgeted for the cost of the three independent reviews commissioned by the Bank of England; whether any of the reviewers will be paid; and, if so, how much.[HL451]
The Commercial Secretary to the Treasury (Lord Sassoon): The cost of the three independent reviews is being borne by the Bank. It is not, at this stage, possible to know the eventual cost. The bank has, however, provisionally budgeted £600,000. The amount paid to individual reviewers has not been disclosed.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they will consider asking the Bank of England to cease paying interest on reserve balances placed with the bank by other United Kingdom banks; and what is their assessment of the impact this would have on bank lending.[HL482]
The MPC discussed the merits of changing the structure of remuneration on commercial bank reserves at its meeting on 4 and 5 November 2009. The Committee agreed that "such an action would be unlikely to have a significant impact on the outlook, given the already
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA147
The full minutes of the meeting are available at: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/minutes/Documents/mpc/pdf/2009/mpc0911.pdf
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether any money has been repaid by the Icelandic Depositors and Investor Guarantee Fund (DIGF); what steps are under way to retrieve outstanding monies from DIGF and how much is involved, with and without interest.[HL309]
The Commercial Secretary to the Treasury (Lord Sassoon): In November 2008, following the Financial Services Authority's (FSA's) announcement that the UK branch of Landsbanki was in default, the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) began payouts to UK depositors with Icesave. The FSCS made payments of approximately £4.5 billion to UK depositors in Icesave. These payments were made up of three different tranches:£2.3 billion for deposit balances up to EUR 20,887 (£16,872) that should have been paid by the Icelandic Depositors and Investor Guarantee Fund (DIGF);£1.4 billion for deposit balances above £16,872 and below £50,000 for which the FSCS is liable; and£0.8 billion for deposit balances above £50,000 for which HM Treasury is liable.
Negotiations took place with Iceland, and in December 2010 a new loan agreement was initialled by the UK and Iceland in respect of the loan. This loan was ratified by the Icelandic Parliament, but on 8 April 2011 the loan agreement was rejected in an Icelandic referendum.
As Iceland is a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Surveillance Authority (ESA) has commenced proceedings against Iceland in the EFTA court in respect of this loan. This case, which the ESA is preparing, will confirm whether there is a legal obligation for Iceland to repay the amounts distributed by the UK and the Netherlands on behalf of Iceland. The UK will then look to negotiate a new loan agreement, which will include interest payable.
Baroness Garden of Frognal: Under the terms of the amended BBC Agreement, the subject matter of National Audit Office (NAO) reviews is at the discretion of the Comptroller and Auditor-General (CAG). In practice, NAO reviews cover a wide range of areas of BBC expenditure and are listed on the BBC Trust website: (http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbctrust/our_work/vfm/ index.shtml).
The CAG is not, however, entitled to question the merits of any editorial or creative judgement of the BBC, nor of any policy objective of the BBC relating to the manner in which BBC services are made or distributed.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether, in the light of the reported major outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in camelids in East Sussex in April 2012 and reports that a camelid owner has contracted bovine tuberculosis that is of the same spolygotype as that found in her alpacas, they will review current surveillance and movement policies for camelids. [HL453]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Lord Taylor of Holbeach): We are addressing these two unrelated events in different ways based on an assessment of the risks. In the case of the animal health risks, the Animal Health and Welfare Board for England (AHWBE) has already asked Defra to look at a quality assurance (TB herd accreditation) scheme for the camelid industry. We plan to use this as an opportunity to consider matters such as camelid movements, veterinary supervision and testing.
The question of human health is primarily one for the Health Protection Agency and my officials have been working closely at a local and national level to inform an assessment of the risks. However, Defra's initial view is that the recently diagnosed case of Mycobacterium bovis TB in an alpaca keeper does not materially alter the current assessment that M. bovis infections in camelids pose a very low risk for the general public.
To ask Her Majesty's Government how many camelids were slaughtered for meat in English and Welsh abattoirs in each year since 2003; and how many of those animals were found to have bovine tuberculosis lesions.[HL454]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): The Food Standards Agency collects throughput data to ensure compliance with EC Regulation 882/2004 (charging) and to use as management information. Under Regulation 882/2004, the competent authority must ensure minimum charges for specified categories of animals. There is no specific category for
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA149
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether all cases of bovine tuberculosis in non-bovine farmed animals are reported to the authorities; and, if not, what plans they have to improve rates of reporting. [HL455]
Lord Taylor of Holbeach: TB in non-bovine species is a notifiable disease under the Tuberculosis (England) Order 2007. Under the order, carcasses of farmed mammals or mammals kept as pets affected with, or suspected of being affected with tuberculosis, are notifiable to the local office of the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA). The identification by a laboratory of the bovine TB bacterium (Mycobacterium bovis) in the tissues of any mammal is also notifiable to AHVLA.
It is in owners' interests to do everything they can to stop the spread of this dreadful disease and we advise owners of non-bovine species who suspect their animals have TB to contact their local veterinary surgeon for advice. It is good husbandry practice to carry out a post-mortem veterinary examination on any domestic animals that die or have to be euthanised due to an undetermined condition. Regional AHVLA laboratories provide a subsidised post-mortem service to animal keepers and their private veterinarians.
The Minister of State, Home Office (Lord Henley): A British citizen, of full age and full capacity, may make a declaration of renunciation of citizenship under Section 12 of the British Nationality Act 1981.
Further guidance can be found at Chapter 19 of the Nationality Instructions, a copy of which I will place in the Library and which is available on the UK Border Agency website at http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov. uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/nationalityinstructions/nichapter19/.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord Howell of Guildford on 27 March (WA 240) indicating that there were "no plans to change the British Indian Ocean Territory marine protected area" and that the area was "fully
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA150
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): Due to a clerical error, the size of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) Marine Protected Area was incorrectly stated on the Foreign and Commonwealth Office's website. This was corrected in April 2012 when the mistake was realised. The outer limits of the BIOT Fisheries (Conservation and Management) Zone 1991 and the BIOT Environment (protection and Preservation) Zone 2003 have not changed.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord Howell of Guildford on 27 March (WA 240) indicating that there were "no plans to change the British Indian Ocean Territory marine protected area" and that the area was "fully compatible with United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea obligations", whether the delimitation of the British Indian Ocean Territory marine protected area has been agreed with the Republic of the Maldives; and, if not, whether procedures for dispute settlement have been initiated in the absence of agreement, as required by Article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[HL446]
Lord Howell of Guildford: There is no agreement delimiting the boundary between the Maldives and the British Indian Ocean Territory. There has been an initial discussion between the Government and the Republic of the Maldives. The UK regards the median line as the boundary between the Maldives and the British Indian Ocean Territory.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord Howell of Guildford on 27 March (WA 240), indicating that there were "no plans to change the British Indian Ocean Territory marine protected area" and that the area was "fully compatible with United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea obligations", how they intend to take enforcement measures against foreign vessels in the British Indian Ocean Territory marine protected area under Article 73 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, taking account of Article 56(2) of the Convention.[HL447]
Lord Howell of Guildford: The Government have consistently made clear that the establishment of the Marine Protected Area around the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is fully compatible with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The BIOT Patrol vessel, the Pacific Marlin is used to enforce the laws of the British Indian Ocean Territory and its use is also compatible with the convention.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): We have been clear that kindness and compassion, dignity and respect must be central to care, whoever provides it and wherever it is provided. Decisions about the content of the mandate will be made in a transparent way on the basis of a full public consultation, which will take place this summer.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): Net expenditure on adult social care in 2010-11 was £14,605 million. This is the latest year for which data are available.
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): The Government are a state party to, and strong supporter of, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). Both conventions require states parties to destroy stocks of weapons that they possess. We ended our chemical and biological weapons programme in the 1950s. We call on all states that are not yet party to the CWC or the BTWC to adhere to them as soon as possible.
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has followed Chen Guangcheng's case for some years. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, my right honourable friend the Member for Richmond (Yorks) (Mr Hague) and the Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, my honourable friend the Member for Taunton Deane (Mr Browne) have made frequent representations with the Chinese authorities. On 17 April Mr Browne expressed his concern about Chen's case, urging the authorities to lift all restrictions on Chen and his family, and to ensure that they are able to receive any necessary medical treatment.
During the launch of the 2011 Annual Human Rights report on 30 April, the Foreign Secretary raised our concern for the welfare of Chen's family and associates and described the case as an "opportunity for the Chinese authorities to show they will not tolerate the abuse of power which Chen's case has exposed in many ways."
We look to the Chinese Government to assure the rule of law and protect the rights of Chen's family and associates. We will continue to follow his case closely and raise any concerns with the Chinese Government bilaterally and through the European Union.
To ask Her Majesty's Government what measures are in place to safeguard the role of the civil service in giving politically impartial and objective advice to Ministers of the Crown in accordance with the Civil Service Code regarding the development and execution of legislative and administrative measures. [HL201]
To ask Her Majesty's Government what representations they have made to the Government of Colombia regarding the state of human rights in that country, and particularly regarding recent murders of trade unionists.[HL485]
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): Human rights continue to be an integral part of our dialogue and relationship with Colombia. The Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, my honourable friend the Member for Taunton Deane (Mr Browne) discussed
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA153
Our embassy in Bogota regularly raises our concerns about the violence and intimidation suffered by human rights defenders, including trade unionists, with the Colombian Government. Our embassy also funded a study by the United Nations Development Programme last year into violence against trade unionists and is following up its recommendations with the Ministry of Labour.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office's 2011 Human Rights and Democracy Report outlined the important steps that the Santos Administration has taken to improve the human rights situation in Colombia, but also that more remains to be done. We urge the Colombian Government to provide greater protection for human rights defenders and their families, to reduce the length of time taken to investigate murders and forced disappearances, and to work with unions and employee organisations to strengthen labour relations in Colombia.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether the new Competition Markets Authority, to be established by the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Bill, will have the power to intervene in any proposed mergers of NHS trusts that they consider to be anti-competitive.[HL622]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): The Office of Fair Trading has not considered National Health Service Trusts to be enterprises for the purpose of the merger controls under the Enterprise Act 2002. The Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Bill would not change the definition of enterprises for these purposes.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord McNally on 14 December 2011 (WA 265-6), whether any Magistrates' Courts, Crown Courts or County Courts will have some or all of their courtrooms closed immediately preceding or during the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games; and, if so, which courts, for what reasons, and for what periods.[HL328]
The Minister of State, Ministry of Justice (Lord McNally): Working with partner agencies Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service (HMCTS) has assessed all the potential impacts of the Olympic and Paralympic Games on court business. These include disruption to travel for staff and court users and any potential increase in workload. Following this assessment HMCTS has developed detailed plans that include a reduction
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA154
|Reduced courtrooms for the Olympic Games 23 July-12 August|
|Magistrates' Courts||Standard no of courtrooms for time of year||Proposed number of courtrooms|
|Crown Court||Standard no of courtrooms for time of year||Proposed number of courtrooms|
|County Court||Standard no of courtrooms for time of year||Proposed number of courtrooms|
|Reduced courtrooms for the Paralympic Games 29 August-9 September|
|Magistrates' Court||Standard no of courtrooms for time of year||Proposed number of courtrooms|
|Crown Court||Standard no of courtrooms for time of year||Proposed number of courtrooms|
To ask Her Majesty's Government how many sex offenders have reoffended in (1) the east of England, (2) London, and (3) the south-east region in each of the past seven years for which information is available.[HL429]
The Minister of State, Ministry of Justice (Lord McNally): The Answer to the noble Baroness's Question has been provided using a breakdown of the Ministry of Justice's published proven re-offending statistics for the requested regions.
The table below shows the number of adults (aged 18 or over) and juveniles (aged 10 to 17) with an index sexual offence that re-offended within a 12 month period for each year from 2003 to 2009 (the latest full calendar year for which data are available).
|Number of adult and juvenile sex offenders who re-offended from 2003 to 20091|
|Region||Year||Number of offenders||Number of offenders who re-offended|
Proven reoffending is defined as any offence committed in a one year follow-up period and receiving a court conviction, caution, reprimand or warning in the one year follow up. Following this one year period, a further six months is allowed for cases to progress through the courts.
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): We welcome bi-communal work in Cyprus, which is an important way of preparing the ground ahead of a settlement by building trust between the two communities. The UK supports directly the Committee for Missing Persons through both financial donations and by providing its accommodation. In the past 24 months, our High Commission has hosted the Stelios award for successful bi-communal businesses.
To ask Her Majesty's Government what consideration they have given to supporting the inclusion of Cypriot civil society organisations as active participants in negotiations over the reunion of Cyprus.[HL338]
Lord Howell of Guildford: The UK is a firm supporter of the United Nations led settlement negotiations, however, as the negotiations are by Cypriots and for Cypriots it would be for the leaders of the two communities to consider and decide on the inclusion of Cypriot civil society organisations.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they will propose that legislation be amended to have guide dogs reclassified as working dogs for tax purposes, though exempted from the high-protein diet.[HL261]
The Commercial Secretary to the Treasury (Lord Sassoon): HMRC does not specify a definition of working dogs for the purpose of determining the VAT treatment of their food. It is the type of food that determines the VAT treatment. Dog food that is suitable for all types of dogs is standard rated as pet food.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Schools (Lord Hill of Oareford): The Government do not hold this information centrally. Informal indications suggest that the use of automated biometric recognition systems in schools and colleges is reasonably widespread, with estimates that around 30% of secondary schools and 5% of primary schools use the systems. The Department for Education is currently consulting on draft advice for schools and colleges on their legal duties if they use automated biometric recognition systems. This includes obtaining parental consent, following provisions in the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, which are expected to come into effect from 1 September 2013. The consultation runs until 3 August 2012.
To ask Her Majesty's Government how many councils were eligible to bid for funding under the Priority School Building Programme; and of those, how many submitted bids and how many were successful.[HL198]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Schools (Lord Hill of Oareford): The Priority School Building Programme (PSBP) was open to all schools and sixth-form colleges. Local authorities, dioceses, academy trusts and voluntary bodies were invited to submit applications on behalf of schools.
The PSBP is targeted at schools with the most urgent building condition issues. We received 587 applications for the programme and we announced on 24 May that 261 schools will be rebuilt or have their building condition needs met through the PSBP.
Lord Hill of Oareford: Local authorities receive capital funding for maintenance and basic need, and the Academies Capital Maintenance Fund is open to academies that have an urgent building condition need.
Our planned investment in school buildings for the current spending review period includes over £4 billion to provide new school places, over £5 billion for maintenance and a mixture of private finance and capital investment that will build over 600 schools in this spending review period.
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): Our embassy in Cairo maintains an open communication channel with representatives of the Coptic Church and we are aware of reporting in Egypt of alleged abductions of Coptic women. We have not discussed specific cases with the Egyptian authorities, but we raise women's rights issues as part of our wider dialogue on human rights.
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): Ministers have raised the issue of sectarian violence in Egypt on a number of occasions with the Egyptian authorities. We have urged them to revisit policies that discriminate on the basis of religion, to establish the conditions for pluralist and non-sectarian politics, and to enshrine the freedom of religion for all faiths in the new constitution and in law.
Our embassy in Cairo maintains an open communication channel with representatives of the Coptic Church and we are aware of reporting in Egypt of alleged abductions of Coptic women. We have not raised specific cases of abductions with the Egyptian authorities, but we raise women's rights issues as part of our wider dialogue on human rights.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord Henley on 28 March (WA 261) regarding the cost of election addresses
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA159
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether inability to get to a polling station is a criterion for obtaining a postal vote; what are the other current criteria; and whether they will require those applying for postal votes who are Commonwealth citizens with leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom to prove they still have that status before a postal vote is granted.[HL531]
Lord Wallace of Saltaire: Postal voting is available on demand to all registered electors without a requirement to prove whether or not they can attend their polling station in person. It has become the option of choice for voters who find it difficult to cast their vote in person, for whatever reason, and enables voters to participate who would otherwise be unable to do so.
Commonwealth citizens may therefore apply for a postal vote provided they are properly registered. All applicants for postal votes are required to provide identifiers (signature and date of birth), which are checked against corresponding information submitted alongside their postal ballot paper.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord Wallace of Saltaire on 22 May (WA 41-2), whether they will ensure that the Directgov website adds that on "qualifying" Commonwealth citizens are eligible to register to vote; and that Directgov and the Electoral Commission's website in future explain what a "qualifying" Commonwealth citizen is in relation to eligibility to register.[HL529]
Lord Wallace of Saltaire: For the purposes of registering to vote, a qualifying Commonwealth citizen is an individual who has leave to enter or remain in the UK or does not require such leave. The Electoral Commission promotes awareness about registering to vote and how to vote, and its website already includes such clarification regarding "qualifying" commonwealth citizens at the following address: www.electoralcommission.org.uk/voter-registration.
Directgov delivers information and practical advice about public services, including registering to vote. The Government endeavour to ensure that all information contained in the website is accurate, and has now updated the website to include the definition of a qualifying commonwealth citizen for electoral registration purposes.
As Director General for the Office for National Statistics, I have been asked to reply to your Parliamentary Question asking how many young people aged 18 to 24 were included in the electoral register in (1) 2010, (2) 2011, and (3) 2012 (HL547).
ONS does not hold the information requested. ONS collate and publish data on the number of people registered to vote in local and European government, and parliamentary elections. These data do not include information on the age of those people registered to vote.
To ask Her Majesty's Government what are the details of the operation of, and what is the evidence of the impact in practice of, the employers' duty under the Equality Act 2010 to prevent third-party harassment; and what, if any, evidence they have on whether employees have conspired to create a harassment situation so as to obtain financial compensation from their employer.[HL423]
Baroness Verma: On 15 May, we published a consultation, Equality Act 2010-Employer Liability for Harassment by Third Parties, through which we are seeking information about the practical impact of the third-party harassment provisions on employees and employers. This consultation can be found at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/about-us/consultations/third-party-harassment/ and a copy will be placed in the Library. These provisions make an employer liable for repeated harassment of an employee by a third party such as a customer. The document makes clear that the provisions did not appear to fulfil any perceived need when they were introduced into domestic law in 2008 and, in keeping with this, we are only aware of one case ruled on by an employment tribunal since that date.
It is not possible for employees to use the third party harassment provisions to conspire with each other to obtain financial compensation from their
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA161
To ask Her Majesty's Government what evidence they have about the benefits and costs of the exercise of the power of employment tribunals under the Equality Act 2010 to make appropriate recommendations to obviate or reduce the adverse effect of unlawful discrimination.[HL424]
Baroness Northover: On 15 May 2012, we published a consultation, Equality Act 2010-Removing (a) Employment Tribunals' Power to Make Wider Recommendations in Discrimination Cases; and (b) the Procedure for Obtaining Information. Through this consultation we are seeking evidence on the costs and benefits of the exercise of the power of employment tribunals under the Equality Act 2010 to make appropriate recommendations to obviate or reduce the adverse effect of unlawful discrimination. This consultation can be found at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/about-us/consultations/equality-act-wider-enforcement/.
To ask Her Majesty's Government what evidence they have about the benefits and costs of the use of the questionnaire procedure in discrimination cases under the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and subsequent anti-discrimination legislation to enable claimants to obtain information to determine if unlawful discrimination has occurred in their case.[HL425]
Baroness Northover: Research carried out for the Government Equalities Office in June 2009 estimated awareness and usage of the individual questionnaire procedure prior to the Equality Act 2010. It estimated that 9,000-10,000 businesses had completed the previous versions of the forms, including the questionnaire procedure for discrimination cases under the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, taking five to six hours to complete. As a result of simplifying and consolidating the forms through the Equality Act 2010, the Government of the day estimated that the consolidated forms would result in a reduction of administrative burden on businesses of 25%, equivalent to £1.4 million per annum.
On 15 May 2012, we published a consultation, Equality Act 2010-Removing (a) Employment Tribunals' Power to Make Wider Recommendations in Discrimination Cases; and (b) the Procedure for Obtaining Information. Through this consultation we are seeking evidence on the costs and benefits the use of the obtaining information procedure under the Equality Act 2010. This consultation can be found at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/ publications/about-us/consultations/equality-act-wider-enforcement/.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they would regard any extensions of European Union Agreements on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products as an upgrading of relations between Israel and the European Union; and, if so, whether they will take steps to block any such extensions.[HL473]
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): The Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products (ACAA) with Israel is a technical trade agreement that would simplify Israeli exports of pharmaceutical products into the European Union (EU). This technical trade agreement was negotiated by the European Commission and signed by the Council of Ministers in May 2010. Consent of the ACAA by the European Parliament, which is required before the agreement can come into force, has been delayed, and is still under discussion.
ACAAs are a specific type of mutual recognition agreement based on the alignment of the legislative system and infrastructure of the country concerned with those of the European Community. The UK does not consider that implementation of this technical agreement would represent an upgrade of relations between Israel and the EU.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord Howell of Guildford on 23 April (WA 319-20), whether they regard the lack of progress in implementing a two-state solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as grounds for opposing any extension of Agreements on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products to open European Union markets to Israeli goods. [HL474]
Lord Howell of Guildford: The Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products (ACAA) with Israel is a technical trade agreement that would simplify Israeli exports into the European Union (EU).
ACAAs are a specific type of mutual recognition agreement based on the alignment of the legislative system and infrastructure of the country concerned with those of the European Community. The agreement was negotiated by the European Commission and signed by the Council of Ministers, with UK support, in May 2010. The agreement is currently being handled as a technical, not political issue, in line with standard EU practice. As such, the UK does not regard the lack of progress in implementing a two-state solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as grounds for opposing its extension.
To ask Her Majesty's Government what industrial products are currently allowed to be imported into the United Kingdom from Israel under European Union Agreements on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products (ACAAs); whether they have discussed with European Union partners any extensions of ACAAs to include pharmaceutical products or other goods; and whether they will review the operation of ACAAs if Israel continues to blockade Gaza or allows further illegal settlements in the occupied territories.[HL475]
Lord Howell of Guildford: At present, industrial products are not imported into the UK, or the EU, from Israel under European Union Agreements on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products (ACAAs). The technical trade agreement relating to pharmaceutical products was negotiated by the European Commission and signed by the Council of Ministers in May 2010. Consent of the ACAA by the European Parliament, which is required before the agreement can come into force, has been delayed, and is still under discussion.
The extension of this agreement has not been discussed substantively by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office with EU partners, subsequent to the Council of Ministers' decision in May 2010. It is not current policy to link the operation of ACAAs to the Israeli blockade of Gaza or illegal settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they will publish their assessment of the economic impact on the United Kingdom of the financial transactions tax proposed by the European Commission, including the proceeds projected to be accrued by the tax. [HL481]
The Commercial Secretary to the Treasury (Lord Sassoon): The Financial Secretary to the Treasury responded to the House of Lords Economic and Financial Affairs Sub-Committee's report on the European Commission's legislative proposal for Financial Transaction Taxes on 24 May 2012. This response will, in due course, be available both on the Committee's website and in the Library of the House.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Communities and Local Government (Baroness Hanham): Decisions on 2013-14 and 2014-15 funding allocations are yet to be made. Provisional fire and rescue authority funding baselines will be announced at the usual time in November/December this year.
I also refer the noble Lord to the letter sent by my honourable friend the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State (Bob Neill) on 6 December 2010 to the hon. Member for Derby North (Chris Williamson), a copy of which is available in the Library of the House, which outlines how fire and rescue authorities can make sensible savings without impacting on the quality and breadth of services offered to their communities.
To ask Her Majesty's Government, further to the Written Answer by Lord Taylor of Holbeach on 1 May (WA 449-50), what quotas with which countries exist for the importation of garlic; what tariff preference and non-preference arrangements are in place for importation of chicken eggs; and what is the basis on which the standard duty rates for garlic and chicken eggs have been set.[HL247]
Nil preferential rates of duty are also available for chicken eggs originating in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in the EU's Generalised System of Preferences (GSP). In order to benefit from these nil rates of duty, the eggs concerned must meet the relevant preferential
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA165
The powers to establish tariffs/quotas for garlic and chicken eggs are set down in Council Regulation 1234/07 (Part III-Trade with third countries, Chapter II Imports). However, the actual rates are set as part of trade agreements.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they have commissioned any research to better understand which system of front of package food labelling would best support United Kingdom consumers in making informed choices about the food they purchase and consume; and, if they have not done so, whether there is any action they propose to take.[HL551]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): This issue has been researched comprehensively in the United Kingdom, the European Union and in other countries around the world. The research indicates that consumers are able to make use of all the forms of front of pack labelling currently on the UK market to choose foods that are healthier but that they can find variation in formats confusing. The UK Governments have launched a consultation with the food industry and other partners to explore ways of achieving greater consistency and clarity in UK practice.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they are making representations to the Government of Israel about an incident in Gaza on 17 May, in which Israel Defence Force tanks are alleged to have wounded seven Palestinians, including three elderly farmers.[HL394]
Our embassy in Tel Aviv recently discussed with the office of the Co-ordinator of Government Activities in the Territories our continuing concerns over reports of civilian injuries and deaths in Israeli Defence Force operations in the West Bank and Gaza. We are aware of reports that seven Palestinians were injured in Gaza on 17 May, although the Israelis have publicly denied that there were any injuries in the operation. We have not raised the specific incidents on 17 May, but are continuing to monitor developments closely and to raise our concerns as appropriate.
We continue to urge restraint on all sides and to condemn any acts that might lead to an escalation of the fragile situation on the ground or cause civilian casualties. All such violence represents both an unacceptable risk to innocent life and a real obstacle to direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians.
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): There have been delays of up to three hours for cross-border travel between Spain and Gibraltar in both directions as a result of detailed document and vehicle checks by the Spanish authorities of pedestrians and vehicles. We are discussing this with the Spanish Government. It is in the interests of communities on both sides of the border that the border functions efficiently.
To ask Her Majesty's Government how the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs defines bonus payments in the context of civil service pay; what proportion of civil servants are eligible to receive non-consolidated performance payments; and how they are selected for those payments. [HL332]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Lord Taylor of Holbeach): Bonus payments are defined as "non-consolidated performance related payments" in the context of Civil Service pay
End-year payments-the top 30% of performers (which is differentiated by the top 10% and next 20%) are eligible to receive an end-year non-consolidated performance related payment, determined through the annual appraisal process.
In-year payments-all staff are eligible to receive a payment for one-off excellent achievements. This is determined via a nomination process. Payments are subject to a maximum ceiling and limited to 0.2% of paybill.
To ask Her Majesty's Government how the Foreign and Commonwealth Office defines bonus payments in the context of Civil Service pay; what proportion of civil servants are eligible to receive non-consolidated performance payments; and how they are selected for those payments.[HL333]
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Howell of Guildford): Non-consolidated performance pay is an integral part of the pay and reward package for all staff in Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO). Non-consolidated performance payments
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA167
For staff in the Senior Civil Service (SCS), the proportion who can receive non-consolidated performance pay is determined centrally by the Cabinet Office and is based on recommendations by the Senior Salaries Review Body. For 2012, based on 2011-12 performance, this is based on the top 25% of staff. To determine who earns a non-consolidated performance payment, we moderate achievements during the reporting year against peers.
For staff below the Senior Civil Service, Her Majesty's Treasury (HMT) has established guidelines but within these has devolved authority for determining pay and reward policies to departments. There are three levels of payment, which are based on the level of performance determined through the appraisal process. This is judged by the individual's line manager and quality controlled by a more senior countersigning officer.
To ask Her Majesty's Government how the Home Office defines bonus payments in the context of civil service pay; what proportion of civil servants are eligible to receive non-consolidated performance payments; and how they are selected for those payments.[HL334]
The Minister of State, Home Office (Lord Henley): In the Home Office, one-off performance payments are non-consolidated, non-pensionable payments to reward high performance. For staff below the Senior Civil Service (SCS), each of the three pay bargaining units in the Home Office (Home Office HQ/United Kingdom Border Agency) (UKBA), the Identity and Passport Service, and the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) operates a slightly different set of performance payment schemes, which comprise one or more of the following elements.an end-of-year payment linked to the annual appraisal process to reward consistent high performance throughout the year. In the Home Office HQ/UKBA these are made to up to 35% of top performers following line management recommendation and, for the higher grades, assessment by a moderation panel;for the reporting year 2012-13 this percentage will be reduced to 25%;an in-year special payment to reward any individual for outstanding achievement on a one-off project or in specific difficult circumstances. These are made following line manager recommendation. In Home Office HQ/UKBA and CRB, 0.3% of the pay bill is set aside for this purpose; andin the Identity and Passport Service only, a flat-rate corporate payment is made to all satisfactory performers when corporate objectives are met. This was last paid in 2010, at a flat rate of £450 per head.
In line with Cabinet Office guidance, all Senior Civil Servants in the Home Office are eligible for consideration
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA168
The Home Office Remuneration Committee, chaired by the Permanent Secretary, decides SCS bonus payments, taking into account a range of factors, including job weight, complexity and level of challenge.
Earl Attlee: The Northern Ireland Office has designated external areas allocated for officials who wish to smoke during office hours. Arrangements for the use of these areas are agreed between officials and their line managers.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Energy and Climate Change (Lord Marland): There are no specific arrangements in place in the Department of Energy and Climate Change for employees who smoke.
The Minister of State, Home Office (Lord Henley): In accordance with the Health Act 2006, staff are prohibited from smoking on any Home Office premises, including land, vehicles and buildings. Staff do not have a specific entitlement to a smoking break during the working day.
The most recent list is available on the Cabinet Office website at: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/resources/LIST-APRIL.pdf.
Lord Wallace of Saltaire: Special advisers are required to conduct themselves in accordance with the provisions of the Code of Conduct for Special Advisers, which forms part of their terms and conditions of appointment.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): The department has published a strategy, The Power of Information: Putting All of Us in Control of the Health and Care Information We Need. This outlines the requirement to reduce the number of inconsistent or incompatible terminologies from 2015 to allow better integration between systems and across health and social care, and better information to support care and improvement of care. A copy has already been placed in the Library.
To ask Her Majesty's Government whether the risk assessment in respect of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 included an examination of the transfer of public health to local government; and, if so, whether any risk was identified in the risk register.[HL322]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): The transfer of public health to local government is an integral component of the health and social care reforms, and all aspects of its
11 Jun 2012 : Column WA170
The specific information on risks contained within the transition risk register is covered by the exemption under Section 35(1)(b) of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, which exempts from disclosure information relating to the formulation and development of policy. Information relating to the programme risks will be reviewed at designated intervals during the programme and will be published when the balance of public interest favours disclosure.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): As set out in the department's information strategy, The Power of Information-Putting All ofUs in Control of the Health and Care Information We Need, all National Health Service patients will have secure online access, where they wish it, to their personal general practice records by 2015. The Government have asked the Royal College of General Practitioners, working in partnership with patient groups and other professional organisations, to lead development of a plan, policy and procedures to support patient access and engagement with their general practitioner records.
From April 2013, people will be able to see which general practices make available online access to records and other transactional services-via the NHS Choices website and, later, a national, single online portal.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Earl Howe): The department does not collect these figures centrally but the NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme has been auditing these figures since 2006.
|Apr 2007-Sep 2007||Oct 2007-Mar 2008||Apr 2008-Sep 2008||Oct 2008-Mar 2009||Apr 2009-Sep 2009||Oct 2009-Mar 2010||Apr 2010-Sep 2010||Oct 2010-Mar 2011||Apr 2011-Sep 2011||Oct 2011-Mar 2012|
To ask Her Majesty's Government how many people with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation have died from a stroke or other thromboembolic event in each primary care trust in England in each of the past five years.[HL325]
As Director General for the Office for National Statistics, I have been asked to reply to your Parliamentary Question asking how many people with a diagnosis ofatrial fibrillation have died from a stroke or other thromboembolic event in each primary care trust in England in each of the last five years [HL325].
Table 1 provides the number of deaths registered where the underlying cause of death was either: stroke or a thromboembolic event and atrial fibrillation was mentioned on the death certificate for each primary care organisation in England, between 2006 and 2010 (the latest year available).
Internationally accepted guidance from the World Health Organisation requires only those conditions that contributed directly to death to be recorded on the death certificate. Medical practitioners and coroners are not supposed to record all of the diseases or conditions present at or before death. Whether a condition contributed to the death is a matter for their clinical judgement. Therefore these figures are likely to underestimate the number of people diagnosed with atrial fibrillation that have died from stroke or other thromboembolic events.
Figures have been provided where atrial fibrillation was mentioned on the death certificate. This means that atrial fibrillation contributed to the death but does not necessarily mean that it led to the condition selected as the underlying cause. For some thromboembolic events, such as deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation is an unrelated condition and is highly unlikely to have caused the thrombosis.
|Table 1. Number of stroke or other thromboembolic event deaths where atrial fibrillation was mentioned on the death certificate, primary care organisations, England, 2006-101,2,3,4|
|Stroke||Other thromboembolic events|
|Next Section||Back to Table of Contents||Lords Hansard Home Page|