Memorandum by the Grünhaus Project,
NOTES ON "GREEN" PROJECTS IN UK
AND ELSEWHERE APRIL 2008
The Sustainable Communities Bill has been passed
There should be a recognition that Green Technology
is best and most economically set on "locally". Sustainable
Communities should develop their own energy supplies as far as
possible. Further as all Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation
engenders an inflation proof tax free [energy] income, the benefits
of this are almost more important than being "Green"
and countering Climate Change. As other energy costs rise and
taxes are imposed, energy "Harvested from the Heavens"and
the Oceansrises in value in line. As do Energy Conservation
The SUSTENG.xls program disk is available
on request for doing calculations on the above.
2. UK ENERGY
Please see diagram below, and note the relative
percentages of end uses for Heat and Electricity. These two types
of Energy are "interchangeable" BUT electricity used
for heating [unless through a Heat Pump] is very wasteful. As
is heat used to generate Electricity unless a Combined Heat and
Power [CHP] unit is involved.
In 1086 William I, King of England, conducted
an "energy survey" of the renewable energy [all the
energy there was then apart from a little coal in Durham] of beasts,
men, mills, tillage and timber in his new kingdom, known today
as the Doomsday Book. So that he could exploit it for fiscal benefits
to the Kingdom.
The same should be done now, for assessing the
"energy potential" of each and every UK Local and Municipal
Authority, so that by raising revenue from collecting and distributing
energy locally they could remove the need for Council Tax [in
time past the local gasworks was a good source of revenue], encourage
the development of both renewable energy, CHP and conversion of
waste to useful energy [see www.greenfinch.co.uk and www.woking.gov.uk
for two good examples. Waste disposal energy producing sites are
operational with Hampshire CC and the Isle of Wight]. See also
might consider Nuclear CHP, as used elsewhere in the World.
There should be no "cap" on such moves,
Authorities in "energy surplus" should be able to do
appropriate deals with those in deficit. Central energy provision
in my view is wasteful, leading to a greater than necessary "Carbon
Footprint". And my late father in law Eric Colbeck who invented
the Boron Steel for Control Rods which made the Nuclear Power
Industry feasible was never very impressed by it's thermal efficiency.
Way back in 1998 my cousin Lord Liverpool extracted
from HM Government the information that Solar PV could potentially
supply most of our electricity demands. [1994 ETSU report]. For
a commercial concern Solar PV is often financially beneficial
as it provides an inflation proof tax free [energy] incone from
an investment that can be "amortised" against tax liabilities
through standard depreciation allowances against tax.. The CI
Tower of the Co-op in Manchester I think benefits from this approach.
Lord Liverpool also brought up the subject of CSP [Solar power
from deserts] in a recent debate on the Energy White paper [HoL
Report Vol 693, No.118] See item  below.
Energy and Food are two sides of the same coin.
The more so as on average in UK about twice as much energy is
required to be imported to the farms and food processing factories
as compared to the food energy produced from them. In the case
of farms the above does not include the input of labour and sunlight
Further globally resources are declining both
absolutely and per head of population. Emphasising the need for
local resource development and economy to ensure reduced imports.
4a. From sewage ponds to aviation fuel Secret
Kiwi fuel ingredient is pond scum
Air New Zealand and airliner manufacturer Boeing
are secretly working with New Zealand-based biofuel developer
Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation to create the world's first environmentally
friendly aviation fuel, made of wild algae. If the project pans
out the small and relatively new New Zealand company could lead
the world in environmentally sustainable aviation fuel.
The fuel is essentially derived from bacterial
pond scum created through the photosynthesis of sunlight and carbon
dioxide on nutrient-rich water sources such as sewage ponds.
Virgin Fuels announced in April it was working
with Boeing to demonstrate biofuel in a 747-400. The focus is
on testing algae-derived jet fuel, especially its freezing point.
Boeing's Dave Daggett was reported this year
as saying algae ponds totalling 34,000 square kilometres could
produce enough fuel to reduce the net CO2 footprint for all of
aviation to zero. http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/secret-kiwi-fuel-ingredient-is-pond-scum/2007/07/19/1184559919499.html
4b. Algae Biofuels, work on using Algae to
produce biofuels from Waste and Carbon Dioxide
There would seem to be no need, quantitatively
or qualitatively to use food crops to make biofuels, see
It is suggested that someone joins http://groups.yahoo.com/group/oil_from_algae
which has an on going discussion on the whole subject, and several
files which may be of interest.
Algae are prolific and can produce 15,000 gallons
of biodiesel per acre, compared to just 60 gallons from soybean.
[per annum I think] Berzin [MIT researcher] estimates that a 1,000
MW power plant using his system could produce more than 40 million
gallons of biodiesel and 50 million gallons of ethanol a year.
But that would require a 2,000 acre farm near the power plant.
While a cheap alternative to gasoline may still
be pie in the sky, ethanol producers in cattle country will soon
be reaping the energy rewards of pies on the ground. Ethanol production
plants fuelled by cow manure are under construction in Hereford,
Texas and Mead, Nebraska.
5. WASTE DISPOSAL
Food waste to power and heat see www.greenfinch.co.ukthe
Ludlow Digester Project and GASREC digester Albury project.
Also start building 500kW CHP units at most
local transformers actively managed with standby [waste] fuel.
Result for each one built and connected = gas
consumption for area halved compared to supply from individual
boiler and central electricity.
Doubles life of most valuable CO2 displacement
fuel natural gas.
Two interconnect individual units to build city
wide heat network units back each other up through 11kV system
and as each one is installed it releases capacity in the HV system
of 500kVA plus 25% ie 625kVA of capacity.
Reason Marginal losses on electricity supply
around 20 to 25%
[comment from William@orchardpartners.co.uk]
Co-Production of Ethanol and Electricity from
A gasification/biocatalytic process developed
for BRI Energy by a team led by Dr James L Gaddy enables the co-production
of electricity and ethanol (and/or hydrogen) from any carbon-based
material, such as municipal solid waste; biosolids and animal
wastes; biomass waste; used tires and plastics; and hydrocarbons
(coal, natural gas, refinery tars and waste oils) [more detail
on this last if required]
6. PLASTICS TO
Key to GRC's process is a machine that uses
1,200 different frequencies within the microwave range, which
act on specific hydrocarbon materials. As the material is zapped
at the appropriate wavelength, part of the hydrocarbons that make
up the plastic and rubber in the material are broken down into
diesel oil and combustible gas.
GRC's machine is called the Hawk-10. Its smaller
incarnations look just like an industrial microwave with bits
of machinery attached to it. Larger versions resemble a concrete
"Anything that has a hydrocarbon base will
be affected by our process", says Jerry Meddick, director
of business development at GRC, based in New Jersey. "We
release those hydrocarbon molecules from the material and it then
becomes gas and oil".
7. ECONOMIC SOLAR
Green and Gold Energy http://www.greenandgoldenergy.com.au/.
recently announced an order for 105 MW of Emcore's 37% efficiency
photovoltaic concentrator chips http://www.emcore.com/news/release.php?id=163
and setup a large manufacturing operation in China. They already
have over 200 MW worth of orders and are about to place a 500
MW followup order to Emcore. The 105MW order is the largest ever
for concentrating PV chips.
Their system is reportedly economic without
any subsidies. Current best price [May 2008] $950 per 500 watt
see also http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/publications/doc/2007_concertrating_solar_power_en.pdf
Nano-technology is now in production, photo-voltaic
foil providing electrical power at lower cost than coal burning
plants. If true, the promise of energy independence for every
household at around $0.30/watt manufacturing cost.
A UK firm probably using the same technology, and
with the same low cost prospects can be seen at www.g24i.com
See also Nanosolar Ships First Panels http://www.nanosolar.com/blog3/2007/12/18/nanosolar-ships-first-panels/
$0.99/watt as panels ex works is being quoted
For new batteries for this see Stanford's nanowire
battery holds 10 times the charge of existing ones
Another Solar technology much in the news is
Concentrated Solar PowerCSP.
Clean Power from Deserts for Europe, the Middle East
and North Africa
Prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan presents White
Paper to EU Parliament
On 28 November 2007, His Royal Highness Prince Hassan
bin Talal of Jordan, former President of The Club of Rome, presented
the White Paper "Clean Power from DesertsThe DESERTEC
Concept for Energy, Water and Climate Security" to the European
Parliament in Brussels. It is based on studies by the German Aerospace
Center on the potential of deserts to supply clean power to Europe,
the Middle East and North Africa (EU-MENA).
By 2050 solar power could end U.S. dependence on
foreign oil and slash greenhouse gas emissions.
8. SOLAR WATER
Chinese have over 52,000 MWTh installed !! UK has
140 [2005 data] Full UK installation on all 25 million or so domestic
premises would be the equivalent of 4-5 1,000 MW power station's
energy output. Much UK high energy rating electric power is currently
used just for low energy heating and hot water. Very few Heat
Pumps in use which multiply High Energy electricity into 3-4 times
the amount of low energy heating/hot water.
9. WIND ENERGY
The current popular Renewable Technology with
HM Government. However it's full costings/economics are being
questioned, and should be reviewed. There is much resistance to
on shore wind farms, and the proposed use of the wrong technology
for offshore. Current offshore cost estimate about £2,500
/kW installed. About half that on land.
The basic mechanical principles of the currently
popular three bladed large Wind Energy Collectors (they are not
strictly turbines having only one rotor) go back to 1185 or before
when Nicholas rented the "milling by the wind" (Molendium
venti) from the Knights Templars in East Yorkshire. And possibly
as far back as when the "slave skilled in the manufacture
of windmills" slew the Sultan Omar of Baghdad in 644 AD.
A friend of Betz who is sometimes described
as the "father of modern wind energy collection theory",
Hans Honneff, wrote a book on the use of contra-rotation, using
two rotors one behind the other, driving the two halves of an
electrical generator.Thus creating a true "Wind Turbine".
Development work was done in Germany 1935-45 and an actual machine
produced in UK 1976-81 see
The possibility exists of a major cost reduction
in Wind Turbine technology, especially for offshore, and "on
10. TIDAL ENERGY
A barrage across the Severn Estuary has been
under investigation since before 1974. The Sustainable Development
Commission's report "Tidal Power in the UK" concludes
the UK's outstanding tidal resources could provide at least 10%
of the country's electricity through a combination of technologies.
A Severn barrage alone could potentially supply just under 5%the
report covers barrages, tidal stream and tidal lagoons www.sd-commission.org.uk/presslist.php?id=72
For smaller projects BERR have recently announced
that they will provide extra support under the Renewables Obligation
to tidal lagoons and barrages under 1GW in capacity.
The SDC's report on tidal power recommended
that Government look to support the development of one or more
tidal lagoon demonstration projects. The challenge now lies with
the renewables industry and those involved with tidal lagoons
to develop a viable tidal lagoon project that successfully demonstrates
the concept at scale.
See also www.tidalelectric.com
11. FEED IN
Solar PV now requires no more subsidies in Germany.
Due to the provision of long term "Feed in Tariffs".
See also http://www.all-energy.co.uk/UserFiles/File/2007JeremyLeggett2.pdf
12. UK GOVERNMENT
?? SEE DIAGRAM
14 May 2008