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Regulation of Investigatory Powers Bill
 
 

 
 
A

B I L L

TO

Make provision for and about the interception of communications, the acquisition and disclosure of data relating to communications, the carrying out of surveillance, the use of covert human intelligence sources and the acquisition of the means by which electronic data protected by encryption or passwords may be decrypted or accessed; to provide for the establishment of a tribunal with jurisdiction in relation to those matters, to entries on and interferences with property or with wireless telegraphy and to the carrying out of their functions by the Security Service, the Secret Intelligence Service and the Government Communications Headquarters; and for connected purposes.

BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-
 

  PART I
  COMMUNICATIONS
  CHAPTER I
  INTERCEPTION
 
Unlawful and authorised interception
Unlawful interception.     1. - (1) It shall be an offence for a person intentionally and without lawful authority to intercept, at any place in the United Kingdom, any communication in the course of its transmission by means of-
 
 
    (a) a public postal service; or
 
    (b) a public telecommunication system.
      (2) It shall be an offence for a person-
 
 
    (a) intentionally and without lawful authority, and
 
    (b) otherwise than in circumstances in which his conduct is excluded by subsection (6) from criminal liability under this subsection,
       to intercept, at any place in the United Kingdom, any communication in the course of its transmission by means of a private telecommunication system.
 
      (3) Any interception of a communication which is carried out at any place in the United Kingdom by, or with the express or implied consent of, a person having the right to control the operation or the use of a private telecommunication system shall be actionable at the suit or instance of the sender or recipient, or intended recipient, of the communication if it is without lawful authority and is either-
 
 
    (a) an interception of that communication in the course of its transmission by means of that private system; or
 
    (b) an interception of that communication in the course of its transmission, by means of a public telecommunication system, to or from apparatus comprised in that private telecommunication system.
      (4) Where the United Kingdom is a party to an international agreement which-
 
 
    (a) relates to the provision of mutual assistance in connection with, or in the form of, the interception of communications,
 
    (b) requires the issue of a warrant, order or equivalent instrument in cases in which assistance is given, and
 
    (c) is designated for the purposes of this subsection by an order made by the Secretary of State,
       it shall be the duty of the Secretary of State to secure that no request for assistance in accordance with the agreement is made on behalf of a person in the United Kingdom to the competent authorities of a country or territory outside the United Kingdom except with lawful authority.
 
      (5) Conduct has lawful authority for the purposes of this section if, and only if-
 
 
    (a) it is authorised by or under section 3 or 4;
 
    (b) it takes place in accordance with a warrant under section 5 ("an interception warrant"); or
 
    (c) it is in exercise, in relation to any stored communication, of any statutory power that is exercised (apart from this section) for the purpose of obtaining information or of taking possession of any document or other property;
       and conduct (whether or not prohibited by this section) which has lawful authority for the purposes of this section by virtue of paragraph (a) or (b) shall also be taken to be lawful for all other purposes.
 
      (6) The circumstances in which a person makes an interception of a communication in the course of its transmission by means of a private telecommunication system are such that his conduct is excluded from criminal liability under subsection (2) if-
 
 
    (a) he is a person with a right to control the operation or the use of the system; or
 
    (b) he has the express or implied consent of such a person to make the interception.
      (7) A person who is guilty of an offence under subsection (1) or (2) shall be liable-
 
 
    (a) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine, or to both;
 
    (b) on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum.
      (8) No proceedings for any offence which is an offence by virtue of this section shall be instituted-
 
 
    (a) in England and Wales, except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions;
 
    (b) in Northern Ireland, except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions for Northern Ireland.
Meaning and location of "interception" etc.     2. - (1) In this Act-
 
 
    "postal service" means any service which-
 
      (a) consists in the following, or in any one or more of them, namely, the collection, sorting, conveyance, distribution and delivery (whether in the United Kingdom or elsewhere) of postal items; and
 
      (b) is offered or provided as a service the main purpose of which, or one of the main purposes of which, is to make available, or to facilitate, a means of transmission from place to place of postal items containing communications;
 
    "private telecommunication system" means any telecommunication system which, without itself being a public telecommunication system, is a system in relation to which the following conditions are satisfied-
 
      (a) it is attached, directly or indirectly and whether or not for the purposes of the communication in question, to a public telecommunication system; and
 
      (b) there is apparatus comprised in the system which is both located in the United Kingdom and used (with or without other apparatus) for making the attachment to the public telecommunication system;
 
    "public postal service" means any postal service which is offered or provided to, or to a substantial section of, the public in any one or more parts of the United Kingdom;
 
    "public telecommunications service" means any telecommunications service which is offered or provided to, or to a substantial section of, the public in any one or more parts of the United Kingdom;
 
    "public telecommunication system" means any such parts of a telecommunication system by means of which any public telecommunications service is provided as are located in the United Kingdom;
 
    "telecommunications service" means any service that consists in the provision of access to, and of facilities for making use of, any telecommunication system (whether or not one provided by the person providing the service); and
 
    "telecommunication system" means any system (including the apparatus comprised in it) which exists (whether wholly or partly in the United Kingdom or elsewhere) for the purpose of facilitating the transmission of communications by any means involving the use of electrical or electro-magnetic energy.
      (2) For the purposes of this Act, but subject to the following provisions of this section, a person intercepts a communication in the course of its transmission by means of a telecommunication system if, and only if, he-
 
 
    (a) so modifies or interferes with the system, or its operation,
 
    (b) so monitors transmissions made by means of the system, or
 
    (c) so monitors transmissions made by wireless telegraphy to or from apparatus comprised in the system,
       as to make some or all of the contents of the communication available, while being transmitted, to a person other than the sender or intended recipient of the communication.
 
      (3) References in this Act to the interception of a communication do not include references to the interception of any communication broadcast for general reception.
 
      (4) For the purposes of this Act the interception of a communication takes place in the United Kingdom if, and only if the modification, interference or monitoring or, in the case of a postal item, the interception is effected by conduct within the United Kingdom and the communication is either-
 
 
    (a) intercepted in the course of its transmission by means of a public postal service or public telecommunication system; or
 
    (b) intercepted in the course of its transmission by means of a private telecommunication system in a case in which the sender or intended recipient of the communication is in the United Kingdom.
      (5) References in this Act to the interception of a communication in the course of its transmission by means of a postal service or telecommunication system do not include references to-
 
 
    (a) any conduct that takes place in relation only to so much of the communication as consists in any address or other data comprised in or attached to a communication (whether by the sender or otherwise) for the purposes of any postal service or telecommunication system by means of which it is being or may be transmitted; or
 
    (b) any such conduct, in connection with conduct falling within paragraph (a), as gives a person who is neither the sender nor the intended recipient only so much access to a communication as is necessary for the purpose of identifying addresses and other data so comprised or attached.
      (6) For the purposes of this section references to the modification of a telecommunication system include references to the attachment of any apparatus to, or other modification of or interference with-
 
 
    (a) any part of the system; or
 
    (b) any wireless telegraphy apparatus used for making transmissions to or from apparatus comprised in the system.
      (7) For the purposes of this section the times while a communication is being transmitted by means of a telecommunication system shall be taken to include any time when the system by means of which the communication is being, or has been, transmitted is used for storing it in a manner that enables the intended recipient to collect it or otherwise to have access to it.
 
      (8) For the purposes of this section the cases in which any contents of a communication are to be taken to be made available to a person while being transmitted shall include any case in which any of the contents of the communication, while being transmitted, are diverted or recorded so as to be available to a person subsequently.
 
      (9) References in this section to data being attached to a communication include references to the data and the communication being logically associated with each other.
 
      (10) In this section "postal item" means any letter, postcard or other such thing in writing as may be used by the sender for imparting information to the recipient, or any packet or parcel.
 
 
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