Select Committee on European Communities Twelfth Report


Renewable Energy: definition and scope

131. There is no standard definition of renewable energy. A DTI policy statement in 1994[38] defined it as:

"Energy which occurs naturally and repeatedly in the environment and which can be harnessed for human benefit. The ultimate sources are the sun, gravity, the earth's rotation and internal temperature".

The list which followed also included "wood and crops … and animal and human waste including domestic, commercial and industrial wastes", perhaps widening the definition. The DTI's 1999 consultation document included a similar list of sources and technologies, as did the 1997 European White Paper.

132. In setting a target of 12 per cent of primary energy from renewable sources by 2010, the 1997 European White Paper included both large and small hydro. The draft Directive, however, excluded large hydro[39] as being, in general, competitive and not allowing for significant development. It defined "renewable energy sources" as meaning:

"non-fossil fuels (wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric installations with a capacity below 10 MW, wave, and biomass in its various forms, including waste)".

As noted in paragraph 94, these sources can be referred to collectively as "renewables". These do not include nuclear power.

133. In the UK, the boundary between large and small hydro is set at 5 MW for NFFO purposes. However, the DTI's 1999 consultation document includes all hydro provision in its discussions of reaching the renewable electricity targets of 5 per cent by 2003 and 10 percent by 2010. As shown in Table 5 below, large hydro contributes about half the UK's electricity from renewable sources. Including all hydro, the UK's 1997 renewable electricity baseline is 2.4 per cent. Excluding large hydro as in the draft Directive, the baseline is reduced to 1.1 per cent.

Units: TWh EU
1996 1997
Hydro286   3.36  4.13
  large (10 MW plus) -  (3.27)   (3.97)
  small (under 10 MW) -  (0.09)   0.16)
Biomass16.3   2.21  2.55
Wind4.8   0.49  0.66
Totals311   6.06  7.34
  as % electricity consumed 12.9  2.0   2.4
  as % electricity (excl large hydro)   0.9   1.1

EU - Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts (1998), Renewable energy in the EU, FT energy. Data

aggregated from national statistics in World Energy Conference (1998), Survey of Energy Resources

with additional data from other national sources

UK - DTI (1997 and 1998) Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics

Renewable Energy in Europe


134. Renewables provided about 5.4 per cent of the EU's primary energy in 1995[40]. As shown in Table 5, electricity from renewables accounted for about 13 per cent of EU consumption, with 92 per cent of that coming from hydro. (It should be noted that there are numerous discrepancies in official statistics for all types of energy, and data for renewables is often sketchy.)

135. Renewable energy generation is not evenly spread across Europe. Differences stem in large measure from the availability and historic exploitation of resources, particularly as regards the use of waste forestry products ("traditional biomass") and large-scale hydroelectric capacity. Also significant are national policies and support programmes. For example, Germany's wind energy programme is the largest in the EU even though - with the exception of the Northern Sea Coast - the wind resources are not exceptional. Ireland, by contrast, has the best wind resources in Europe but has begun only recently to develop its wind capability.

136. Paragraphs 137 to 161 provide a brief description of the main renewable technologies and their status across the EU. These are considered in order of their contribution to electricity supply as summarised in Table 5 above.


137. Hydroelectric power contributed 2 per cent of the EU's primary energy requirements in 1996[41] and is the most well established of all the renewable technologies. 98,000 MW (almost 50 per cent more than total generation capacity in the UK) are spread across the EU, mainly in France, Sweden, Spain, Austria and Italy, providing 92 per cent of the EU's renewable electricity in 1996[42]. However, the scope for further development of large scale hydro is small, and there are only limited opportunities to make technical improvements in hydro plant.

138. The scope for further deployment lies in ingenuity in installing new systems. Further exploitation of hydropower is likely to be based on the use of small systems, including run of river schemes, typically generating tens of kilowatts up to a few megawatts. However, many of the best sites have already been used and the scope for further cost reductions is small[43].


139. Biomass is generally understood to include all wood and plant material[44], together with organic waste. It is extensively used, and accounts for the highest contribution of renewables to primary energy consumption in the EU[45] and provided about 5.2 per cent of renewable electricity in 1996[46]. Most of this comes from forestry and crop waste. For the purposes of this Report, we differentiate between "energy crops" grown specifically for energy production and waste, including waste from forestry and agriculture.

Energy Crops

140. Present energy crop interest is concentrated on coppiced willow[47]. NFFO and SRO contracts in the UK have focused on electricity production from energy crops using gasification techniques. This achieves more efficient and cleaner combustion than direct burning, and can fuel more efficient generators. Considerable efforts are being made across the world to develop commercial gasification plant.

141. Estimates of the resource vary widely, as they depend on assumptions of the extent to which farmers might switch from livestock or arable farming. The EU white paper suggested that about 7 per cent of the agricultural land in Europe (about 10 million hectares) might be suitable for energy crops, and that such crops' contribution by 2010 might be about 45 Mtoe (half as much again as the contribution from hydro). In the UK, 15 TWh might be available by 2010 (possibly doubling by 2025[48]) at under 5p/kWh.

Energy from Waste

142. Energy may be derived from waste in two ways. The first is by direct combustion of the waste to provide heat and, by means of standard generating equipment, electricity. The main source of waste is municipal solid waste (MSW), but a range of other waste from industry and agriculture may also be used, including car tyres, forestry waste, straw and chicken litter[49]. Attention tends to be concentrated on municipal waste as it has greatest resource potential. Electricity production from MSW is rising throughout the developed world, and so there is an impetus for the plant manufacturers to produce designs that will meet the increasingly stringent restrictions on emissions.

143. Several waste burning technologies have been supported under the various NFFO rounds, but the latest one (NFFO5) was restricted to schemes offering either combined heat and power (CHP) or using fluidised bed combustion (which yields higher combustion efficiency and lower emissions). The technology is well-established and fully commercial. However, there remains scope for advances in screening waste for material that can be recycled and in preparation of the waste in a form most suitable for combustion.

144. Waste combustion provides a double benefit. It not only reduces the pressure on landfill sites, but also means that the waste does not produce the methane that would result from its decay in a landfill site. (Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, with a damaging global warming potential 20 or more times greater than CO2.)

145. On the other hand, municipal waste contains varying amounts of materials which, when burned, may give rise to hazardous emissions (eg dioxins and heavy metals), though these can be satisfactorily controlled by modern technology. Proposals by the European Commission for tighter standards[50] have been the subject of a concurrent enquiry by Sub-Committee C (Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection)[51].

146. The second main way of deriving energy from waste is through the combustion of the Landfill Gas or Biogas which is produced by the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste This gas contains around 55 per cent methane. The great bulk of this comes from landfill sites. A small amount is also produced by the anaerobic digestion of farm and sewage waste.

147. Landfill gas is produced within one year of waste being tipped. Production continues for some decades afterwards. Gas is collected by means of a network of interconnected perforated pipes buried at depths of up to 30 metres in the waste. Such gas is mainly used for electricity generation, normally by combustion in a spark-ignition engine driving a generator, although dual fuel engines and gas turbines are used in larger installations. Generators range in size from around 100 kW to 1 MW. The average capacity of the sites with NFFO contracts is around 2 MW. Landfill gas is also used for other purposes, including kiln firing and fuel for vehicles.

148. The total potential of waste combustion and landfill gas combined is limited by the total amount of waste produced. Although the split between the two sources may be uncertain, the total resource available at economic cost is estimated to lie between 2.6 and 3.4 per cent of UK electricity demand in 2010[52].


149. Wind energy provided 1.5 per cent of EU electricity in 1996[53]. (In capacity terms, wind energy now comes second to hydro amongst the renewable sources in the EU, with nearly 6,500 MW installed by the end of 1998[54]). The best wind resources are on the West Coast of Ireland which receive the full force of the prevailing Westerlies across the Atlantic. There are also good wind speeds in Scotland, the hilly regions of England and Wales, and on the North West Coast of Denmark. The expansion of wind power is being aided by a steady fall in installed costs and by improvements in performance. Turbine outputs are also increasing steadily: the latest commercial machines have ratings around 1.5 MW. Germany has the highest capacity of wind energy in the European Union, but Denmark has the highest proportionate contribution to electricity supply[55].


150. Geothermal energy has been used for several thousand years. Hot water or steam rises naturally to the surface in many locations (notably Iceland, Italy, New Zealand and Japan) but not in the UK. After the oil crisis of 1973, there was considerable interest in exploiting geothermal heat sources by drilling in locations where hot water or steam was thought to be present at reasonable distances below the surface. In addition, the possibility of extracting heat from "hot dry rocks" (where these exist at modest depths) is being studied, although that line of research is now discontinued in the UK. Most schemes use warm water reservoirs. These include one which heats buildings in Southampton City centre.

151. The prospects for geothermal energy improve towards the South of the EU, although there are local "hot spots" in most regions. It provided 1.2 per cent of the EU's electricity in 1996[56]. The 1997 European White Paper forecast only a modest additional contribution by 2010.


152. A tidal barrage, normally across a river mouth or estuary, is used to obstruct the rising or falling tide so that the water can be channelled through electricity-generating turbines. The power output is necessarily intermittent but completely predictable. The world-wide capacity of such schemes is small. France hosts the only commercial scheme of any size within the EU. Although the technical feasibility of tidal energy is not in doubt, load factors tend to be low, which leads to high electricity generation costs. In addition, changes in the patterns of tidal inundation often lead to environmental objections about adverse effects to the ecology of the area.

153. Barrages provided 0.2 per cent of the EU's electricity in 1996[57]. The 1997 European White Paper forecast very little additional capacity by 2010.


154. The energy potential of direct energy from the sun is enormous, but most uses of solar energy are for heat. Passive solar applications involve design concepts to enable buildings to make the most of the sun's light and heat, displacing electric lighting and heat generated by non-renewable sources. Active use of solar energy, through solar thermal technology, concentrates the sun's heat in collectors to provide hot water for domestic use, swimming pools and space heating. Such systems are widespread and have considerable potential, although Germany, Austria and Greece dominate the European market and account for over 80% of sales[58].

155. There have been small research studies to develop solar thermal-electric technology, in which mirrors are used to concentrate the sun's heat to generate steam for electricity generating turbines. The complications of the plant make this unlikely to be a cost-effective way of generating electricity within the foreseeable future.


156. Photovoltaics (PV) convert solar energy directly to electricity by solar "cells". These are made from two thin layers of semi-conducting materials, usually silicon sandwiched between glass, arranged in a way that causes an electric current to flow when light falls on the cell. The electricity generated is a direct current proportional to incident light levels. For other than the most basic uses, PV cells need to be supported by electronic systems to convert the power to alternating current and to regulate the voltage.

157. Solar PV is widely presented as one of the key renewable energy technologies, capable of making a significant contribution to energy supplies in the longer term. Present world capacity is about 1,000 MW[59] and the 1997 European White Paper estimated a contribution of 3,000 MW by 2010. Although this contribution is modest, potential markets for appropriate applications in developing countries are thought to be high. However, the costs per unit for mainstream power are currently around ten times that of the near-market renewables.


158. Although considerable research funding for wave energy has been provided, notably by Britain in the 1980s and by Norway and Japan, there are no commercial devices yet operating. The principal drawbacks of the technology are the complexity of the devices needed to convert the oscillatory motion of the waves into a steady rotary motion, the associated costs of maintenance and the fact that the devices cannot escape the full force of the worst storms.

159. Most activity is now centred on shore-line wave energy conversion devices with outputs from kW to a few MW, rather than the large offshore systems which formed the basis of research work in the 1980s. The 1997 European White Paper did not forecast any significant resource from wave energy by 2010.


160. Like wind energy, the flow of tidal streams and marine currents[60] can be harnessed. Natural currents are usually too slow to be worth exploiting, but there are locations where tidal movements are amplified by topographical features. Small turbines are immersed in locations where there are strong currents, and convert the power of the moving stream into mechanical and electrical energy. There has been a limited number of small demonstration schemes, typically with devices rated around 10 kW. The advantages of the technology are straightforward: the energy availability is accurately predictable; visual impact is close to zero; and there are few environmental disturbances.

161. While the resource is potentially large, commercial exploitation requires stream velocities of at least some 2 metres a second which substantially reduces the feasible sites. Both the DTI and the EU suggest the contribution by 2010 will be small, but may rise after that in the light of proposed demonstration projects.

Aspects of Renewable Sources


162. There are great differences between the various renewables in terms of cost, resource availability and development status of both the technology itself and the manufacturing base. A distinguishing feature of most is that the "fuel" is free. This is not the case with energy crops, where the cost needs to include payment for the land used plus cultivation, harvesting and transport costs. Municipal solid waste, though, has a negative cost as waste disposal authorities expect to pay for its disposal.

163. Some renewable sources are best suited to generating electricity while others are best for producing heat. Historically, the traditional uses of hydro and wind power were for mechanical work (grinding corn or pumping water), but they are also suited to electricity production.

164. The energy available from fossil fuels is limited by the quantity of fuel estimated to be "in the ground". Some fuels are easier to extract than others and, in most cases, it usually becomes progressively more expensive to extract the fuels as individual reserves are depleted. Quantities of fuel (normally in terms of the energy they can provide) available below various cost levels[61] can be shown on "cost-resource curves". Improvements in extraction techniques (plus the occasional discovery of new reserves) mean such curves need updating from time to time.

165. Similarly, cost-resource curves can be used to show the amounts of energy available from renewable energy sources below various cost levels. Again, such curves need updating from time to time as improvements in technology yield efficiency gains. This method of presentation is used by the DTI as an aid to policy making in setting priorities for the development of the various renewable sources. Indeed, we have drawn from these in framing some of our own views of the likely development of renewable energy.

166. Reference is sometimes made to the "technical potential" of renewable energy sources. This normally means the total resource, or gross potential, available in the absence of any constraints and at any price. In practice, there will always be constraints which need to be taken into account in assessing the realistic or feasible potential (sometimes also called the technical potential, as there are no agreed definitions).

167. Estimates of the realistic potential of renewable energy sources are, of course, critically dependent on the assumptions which are made about the constraints. Making reasonable provision for the rate of technological development and the general logistics of installation (especially the allowable land usage for wind turbines and energy crops), a 1997 study[62] suggested renewables could supply 29 per cent of EU primary energy in 2020. Estimates for individual Member States ranged from 8 per cent for Belgium to 59 per cent for Sweden. The estimate for the UK was 27 per cent.

168. The actual rate at which renewable energy provision grows country by country and across the EU as a whole will, of course, depend also on wider policy approaches. Making reasonable allowances for further constraints from these, a 1996 study suggested that renewable energy sources could contribute up to 14 per cent of Europe's primary energy needs by 2020[63].


169. Technologies such as wind, wave, solar and (to a lesser extent) small hydro make use of resources which are intermittent and variable. For example, a wind turbine can generate only when the wind is blowing above a minimum speed, and its output increases with higher wind speeds until the maximum is reached (or, in very high winds, the turbine is shut down). Tidal sources are intermittent but predictable. However, the waste-burning technologies can provide a steady and predictable supply of electricity, similar to conventional power stations.

170. As commercially useful amounts of electricity cannot be stored directly[64] and supply must always match demand, intermittency is often perceived as a drawback for renewables. All the electricity systems in the EU have grid systems which provide inter-connections between the power stations. These systems are designed to cope with fluctuations both in demand and generation.

171. Various measures are used to maintain system stability. In Britain, pumped storage schemes respond very rapidly. Some generating capacity is always on standby - some at very short notice - to cope with unexpected fluctuations in either supply or demand. Grid connected electricity systems can, in fact, accommodate significant quantities of intermittent capacity before additional reserve needs to be brought on line to cater for unexpected levels of output. The cost of providing additional reserve is relatively small. The additional fluctuations due to sources such as wind will not be discernible at realistically modest penetration levels.


172. Electricity generating plant has a "rated capacity" of its maximum continuous power output. However, the intermittency and variability of some renewable energy sources (together with the need for maintenance) means that the average power delivered is lower than the maximum, or rated, power. The ratio of the average power to the rated power is called the "load factor" (sometimes also referred to as the "capacity factor"). Load factors for conventional thermal plant are typically in the range 70-90 per cent; for wind energy they are in the range 25-45 per cent; and for solar, tidal and wave energy they are in the range 12-25 per cent.

173. To facilitate comparisons with thermal plant, the NFFO arrangements use the concept of "declared net capacity" (dnc). The dnc of renewable energy generating stations is roughly the capacity of thermal stations with similar output. It is defined as the rated capacity multiplied by a factor which depends on the type of plant (0.17 for solar, 0.33 for tidal or wave, 0.43 for wind). For example, 100 MW of wind plant, say, is roughly equivalent in energy output to 43 MW of thermal plant. This concept is unique to the UK. References to the capacity of renewable power stations are to rated capacity, unless stated otherwise.



174. The emissions of greenhouse gases, pollutants and waste products saved by switching electricity generation to renewables depend on which fossil fuel is displaced. The supporting analysis[65] to the DTI's 1999 consultation document proposed three scenarios for assessing the range of carbon savings:

·  "Renewables displace combined cycle gas turbines";

·  "Renewables displace modern coal plant"; and

·  "Renewables displace the current generating mix".

The analysis suggested that the first scenario was unlikely in practice, but did not comment on the scenarios further. Nor were the underlying calculations of the carbon savings provided.

175. The DTI's 1999 consultation document estimated the CO2 savings from achieving the target of 10 per cent of UK electricity from renewables in 2010 as "between 3.5-5.4 MtC[66] above that from existing programmes". Reference to the DETR's 1998 climate change consultation paper indicates that the "existing programmes" were NFFO contracts already in place. Those were expected to deliver savings of about 2 MtC. The total carbon savings from reaching the 10 per cent target would therefore appear to be in the range 5.5-7.4 MtC[67].

176. A 1989 analysis[68] of the carbon savings associated with renewable energy can be used to gain a better insight. This showed that carbon savings are those associated with coal-fired power stations. These were (and still are) the so-called "load-following plant" used to match supply with varying demand. (All the nuclear and most of the gas-fired stations operate at "base load"; their output is unaffected by renewable generation.) The CO2 emissions from coal plant in the 1989 report were 928 g/kWh, slightly lower than the unsourced figure of 986 g/kWh given in the DTI's 1999 analysis. However, efficiency gains in coal-fired generation have reduced emissions. Perhaps a more realistic figure is around 870 g/kWh as may be derived from National Power's 1997 report[69].

177. This applies in both the short-term and the longer-term. As noted in paragraph 174, the growth of renewables is unlikely to inhibit the construction of gas-fired power stations. It is likely, however, to continue to force the early closure of coal-fired power stations.

178. On the basis of carbon dioxide savings of 870 g/kWh (equivalent to 237 grams of carbon per kWh), a 10 per cent contribution from renewable sources (excluding the capacity operating in 1990) would save emissions of 7.6 MtC a year.

Energy from waste and energy crops

179. The combustion of energy crops, waste and landfill gas emits CO2 to the atmosphere although, with a modest allowance for energy expended in transport, these operations are substantially CO2 neutral.

180. Energy crops are grown specifically for energy purposes. The carbon taken from atmospheric CO2 during the short growing process is thus simply recycled to the atmosphere. Exactly the same arguments apply to food waste, paper and cardboard[70] in municipal waste and to agricultural waste such as straw.

181. More importantly, the burning of waste completely avoids the production of methane (a much more potent greenhouse gas than CO2) that would come from the decay of that waste in a landfill site. Where landfill gas is produced, it can also be burned allowing similar reasoning on the general emission balance.

182. The key point is that combustion of these sources for the purposes of generating electricity replaces other generation. For the reasons discussed in paragraph 176, the displaced generation is likely to be from coal-fired power stations. The carbon dioxide savings from energy crops and waste can therefore be assessed on the same basis as those for other renewable sources.


183. Like any other commodity, the value of electricity increases between the points of manufacture and of final sale. Generation costs from the latest gas-fired plants are around 2p/kWh, but domestic consumers pay around 8p/kWh. The difference is due to transmission, distribution and administrative costs within the network.

184. As noted in paragraphs 2(a) and (b) of Appendix 4, there are two main stages in the distribution of electricity. The large fossil-fuel and nuclear power stations generate far more power than could be consumed in the immediately surrounding area. They are connected to the high voltage transmission network ("the national grid") for wider distribution. However, renewable electricity installations are mostly small and are connected into regional distribution networks, with the electricity often being used nearby. Connection at this lower level is referred to as "embedded generation".

185. Each tier of distribution has its costs. Regional distribution saves the cost of the national tier. Consequently, the value of renewable energy depends on the point in the electricity network at which the energy is injected.

186. The DTI's 1999 consultation document acknowledged the importance of these issues in noting that "the prices for embedded generation should reflect the overall economics properly, so renewables can compete on a level playing field". The EC's 1999 working paper made the additional point that renewable energy installations may sometimes enable reinforcement of local distribution networks to be deferred.

Electricity system

187. Appendix 4 describes the main components of the UK's electricity industry, together with brief notes on the role of the Regulator and the "pool".


188. Appendix 5 contains a brief description of electrical and other specialised terms used in this Report, together with a summary of the various abbreviations.

The status of key renewables

189. Table 6 below summarises the present status of the renewables which the DTI's 1999 consultation document indicated as contributing to the UK's 2010 targets. It includes estimates of the UK and EU resources, together with present costs and constraints. In particular, it shows the way in which present capacity must be expanded if the aspirations of the 1997 European White Paper and the DTI's consultation document are to be realised.

190. Table 7 shows comparable information for those renewables receiving close attention at present for their longer-term potential rather than as a means of meeting the 2010 targets.

Landfill gas Waste
Energy crops
Onshore Offshore Large Small
UK capacity, Dec 1998, MW138 -208 1801438 35-
Size of potential UK resource under 5p/kWh, 2010, (TWh) 57100 715 Large (but unquanti-fied)1 17
Technology ProvenProven Proven ProvenProven ProvenExperi-mental
Average NFFO5 price, p/kWh3.1 4.5 - 5 (estimated)2.9 2.9n.a. 4.355.8

Scope for reduced pricesModest LargeModestModest SmallSmallLarge
Percentage point share of DTI's "10% by 2010" 1.5 - 2.80.8 - 1.8 1.5 - 1.91.6 - 1.9 1.10.14 0.3 - 1.6
Electricity in 2010 as multiple of 1997 use: UK (1) 8.4 - 15.8All new 6.6 - 8.36.3 - 7.9 13.4 All new
EU resource, 2010, TWh (2)
88 (3)
1119 28161 43
Electricity in 2010 as multiple of 1995 use: EU
19 (3)
n.a.n.a. 1.111.5 3 (4)
Connection issuesStability problems in areas of low demand As for onshore, plus submarine connection MinorMinorNone Costs may be dispro-portionate Uncertain; probably minor
Other constraintsPlanning Need to prove technologyResource, taxes PlanningResource Techno-logy, fuel price/CAP.
Environmental issuesVisual, noise, birds Visual, birdsMethane emissions, drive to burn waste, recycling Emissions, trend to recyclingLand use Few with small schemesLand use: crops need to be near power station

1 2010 data assumes UK supply reaches 380 TWh in total, in line with DTI projection. 1997 electricity production figures are the latest available.

2 EU data (not comparable with UK data) drawn from modelling studies, under a scenario favourable to renewables: The European Renewable Energy Study, ESD Ltd for EC, DG XVII, 1997

3 No offshore/onshore segregation in reference: The European Renewable Energy Study, ESD Ltd for EC, DG XVII, 1997

4 Covers all biomass technologies; energy crops not segregated.

Photovoltaic Geothermal
Shoreline Offshore Stream Barrage
Existing EU capacity, MWVery small NilSmall240 500525
Estimated electricity price, p/kWh6.9

(average SRO3 bids)

Unknown6-77-10 20 upwards4
Technology Experimental ConceptProvenProven ProvenProven
Scope for improvementUncertain UncertainSignificant ModestSignificantModest
Size of resource, UKSmall LargeModestVery large Large, but none at less than 25p/kWhNone for electricity
Size of resource, EUSmall LargeModestLarge Large, but none at less than 15p/kWhNone at less than 10p/kWh
Principal constraintsNeed to prove technology Need to prove, technology, best resource remote from grid Submarine connectionElectricity network reinforcement for large schemes. Capital cost Not for electricity in UK
Environmental issuesVisual/noise Upstream and downstream effects, birds, visual

38   New & Renewable Energy: future prospects in the UK, Energy Paper 62, DTI 1994. Back

39   Defined as installations of 10 MW or more - in line with the World Energy Council's definition (Survey of Energy Resources, 1998). Back

40   See Table 1 on p 19 of this Volume. Back

41   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

42   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

43   R-122, ETSU 1999. Back

44   Biomass does not include peat which is a type of fossil fuel. Back

45   See Table 1 on p 19 of this Volume. Back

46   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

47   Some energy crops are used to make bio-diesel fuel, but the bulk is used for the production of heat and electricity (sometimes together). Back

48   R-122, ETSU 1999. Back

49   In some installations, waste is burnt as a mix with fossil fuels. Back

50   Proposal for a Council Directive on the Incineration of Waste, 12791/98 (COM(98)558 final). Back

51   Waste Incineration, House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities, 11th Report, 1998-99, 15 June 1999, HL Paper 71. Back

52   R-122, ETSU 1999. Back

53   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

54   Windpower Monthly, April 1999. Back

55   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

56   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

57   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

58   Renewable Energy in the EU, Milborrow, Hartnell and Cutts, FT Energy, 1998. Back

59   Estimated from data in Photovoltaics in the UK: Facing the Challenge, British Photovoltaic Association 1999. Back

60   A tidal stream is a current that flows with the tide. Marine currents are more or less constant.  Back

61   This is not the same as the price at which fuel is sold. That is set in the competitive global fuel markets, and may sometimes be below production costs. Back

62   The European Renewable Energy Study, Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd for EC, DG XVII, 1997. Back

63   European Energy to 2020 in Energy in Europe, Special Issue (spring) 1996, European Commission, DG XVII.  Back

64   Pumped storage involves the use of surplus electricity to pump water to a higher level reservoir from which it can be released back through turbines to generate electricity when required. Rechargeable batteries use electricity to make chemical changes which can then be reversed to yield electricity again, but are limited to the smallest installations. Back

65   R-122, ETSU 1999. Back

66   It is not clear where these figures come from. The supporting document (R-122, ETSU 1999) suggests that the upper limit should be about twice the lower, but the range here is less. Back

67   5.4 MtC appears to correspond with the DTI scenario "Renewables displace the current generating mix". No savings are attributed to existing large hydro capacity. Although included in the target, the plant was already operational by 1990, the baseline year for carbon savings. Back

68   Energy Policy and the Greenhouse Effect, House of Commons Energy Committee, 1989, HC 192 1988/89. Back

69   Environmental Report, National Power 1997. Back

70   Paper and cardboard are generally made from relatively short-cycle managed softwood plantations and, again, burning them can be seen as recycling atmospheric CO2. However, the longer growing time of hardwood trees mean that burning the timber from them could not properly be seen as "carbon neutral".  Back

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