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Viscount Waverley: My Lords, I am assured in greater part. Will not the effects of these self-serving policies be continuing aid as a result of stifling trade so that farmers who rely on exports will turn to drug distribution, not least in the United States and United Kingdom markets?
Lord Carter: My Lords, as to the conflict between aid and trade it should be remembered that the US is not the only complainant. Ecuador also challenged the EU regime and won. Other Latin American countries which are involved are also developing countries. The WTO rules are designed to promote international trade and encourage efficient production, which is to everyone's long-term benefit. However, we need to find ways to allow vulnerable countries to adjust and develop their economies. This is recognised by WTO members who have agreed a waiver to allow a preference for ACP countries.
On diversification and the risk of drugs, it is worth pointing out that the main source of the present EU funding is called Stabex. From 2000 onwards the main source of funding of the islands and the remainder of the Caribbean will be the recently agreed special framework of assistance (SFA). It is expected that under the SFA each of the main banana growing Windward Islands will receive between £4 million to £6 million a year; and Jamaica will receive nearly £3 million a year.
Baroness Young: My Lords, I welcome the noble Lord, Lord Carter, speaking on this serious and important subject. Will the Minister indicate the Government's policy towards these Caribbean islands which are completely dependent upon exports of bananas? As the noble Viscount, Lord Waverley, said, if they lose those exports, they will be likely to turn to drugs, to everyone's disadvantage. What positive plans have the Government to help those countries out of their dilemma, assuming that the agreements reached in the WTO hold?
Lord Carter: My Lords, the European Commission is producing proposals this month--we understand within the next few days. Those proposals will have to take account of the WTO rules and the vulnerability of the Caribbean producers.
The UK Government wish to see a solution which does not risk further challenges to the WTO and which addresses the needs of the most vulnerable banana producers. Such a solution would need the agreement of all parties. We support the Commission in searching for a quota-based solution and a speedy end to the dispute. But even if the Commission produces proposals, it is then a matter for the interested parties in the European Union and other interested parties around the world to agree. The issue is extremely complex.
Lord Carter: My Lords, I have already said that it is for the Commission to produce proposals. We have made our position clear. It is clear that if there were a tariff system the tariff would have to be set at a level to support the Caribbean producers which would be too high to be accepted by other parties. The only other hope is a quota-based solution, which will have to be negotiated with the other European Union countries and America and the Latin American countries.
Lord Jopling: My Lords, while there will be broad agreement that banana growing in the Caribbean countries should not be allowed to be massively reduced, is the Minister aware that in the past the quality of bananas grown in the Caribbean has been poor (to put it politely); and that everything must be done to encourage and coerce the banana growers in the Caribbean for their own good to improve dramatically the quality of their product?
Lord Carter: My Lords, the noble Lord is correct. The UK Government are fully committed to the restructuring of the Caribbean banana industry so that it is more competitive and to reducing dependence on banana production. As I pointed out, under the new scheme the total that the main banana growing Windward Islands and Jamaica will receive in 2000 will be in the order of £9 million a year.
Lord Faulkner of Worcester: My Lords, does the Minister agree that whatever compromise may come out of the European Union's discussions with the WTO, it is vital that the traditional access for Commonwealth ACP producers is maintained? Does the noble Lord accept that that will not be possible by a system of auctioning licences? Does he also accept that transitional arrangements have to cover a sufficient period to enable the countries concerned, in particular in the Commonwealth Caribbean, to adapt their economies and their industry? Otherwise they will face a social collapse of the kind to which noble Lords have referred.
Lord Carter: My Lords, the problem to which the noble Lord refers is recognised. Other members of the WTO have already agreed a waiver allowing a preference for ACP countries. I repeat: it is extremely complex to balance the arguments between the interests of the banana producers and the WTO rules which are designed for international trade.
Furthermore, in the Minister's original Answer he cited countries which are far bigger than the Caribbean islands and therefore have the chance to produce alternative crops. Countries such as Dominica simply cannot grow anything else except drugs.
Lord Carter: My Lords, I can only repeat what I have already said. We recognise the problem. There will have to be some attempt to help these countries to diversify. The aid for the main banana-growing Windward Islands and Jamaica for the year 2000 is £9 million a year.
Lord McIntosh of Haringey: My Lords, the Medical Research Council recently launched a joint initiative with the Natural Environment Research Council on environment and health which clearly includes cancer research. The MRC also supports research through its "Health of the public" initiative. The Department of Health also funds research which includes investigating the association between cancer and exposure to radiation and chemicals in the environment. The department's expert committees advise on the carcinogenic risks associated with environmental factors and encourage further research in areas of concern.
Earl Baldwin of Bewdley: My Lords, I am grateful to the Minister for his quite encouraging reply. I am not sure whether it represents an actual improvement on what I gleaned from a Written Answer to a Question of mine last May showing that government sponsored research into carcinogenic chemicals in the environment accounted for barely 2 per cent of the cancer research budget. Does the noble Lord agree that at a time of quite legitimate concern about, for example, pesticides such as lindane, toxic landfills, dietary fats and various types of hair dyes, not to mention the electronic smog in which we all live nowadays, an even greater emphasis on cancer prevention is overdue?
Lord McIntosh of Haringey: My Lords, it is true that our present estimates of the proportion of cancer research related to the environment are rather higher than the figures given to the noble Earl in May this year. I suspect that that is because we are better at attributing and ascribing research rather than that there is a secular increase, so to speak, in the amount
Lord Clement-Jones: My Lords, I congratulate the noble Lord, Lord McIntosh, on his versatility in adding health questions to his portfolio. In welcoming the appointment of Professor Mike Richards as national cancer care director, would the Minister care to give his reaction to the recent rather chilling comments of Professor Gordon McVie, director-general of the Cancer Research Campaign? He said that,
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