1. If it emerges that data held by Europol
which have been communicated to it by third States or third bodies
or which are the result of its own analyses are incorrect or that
their input or storage contravenes this Convention, Europol shall
correct or delete such data.
2. If data that are incorrect or that contravene
this Convention have been passed directly to Europol by Member
States, they shall be obliged to correct or delete them in collaboration
with Europol. If incorrect data are transmitted by another appropriate
means or if the errors in the data supplied by Member States are
due to faulty transmission or have been transmitted in breach
of the provisions of this Convention or if they result from their
being entered, taken over or stored in an incorrect manner or
in breach of the provisions of this Convention by Europol, Europol
shall be obliged to correct them or delete them in collaboration
with the Member States concerned.
3. In the cases referred to in paragraphs
1 and 2, the Member States which are recipients of the data shall
be notified forthwith. The recipient Member States shall also
correct or delete those data.
4. Any person shall have the right to ask
Europol to correct or delete incorrect data concerning him.
Europol shall inform the enquirer that data
concerning him have been corrected or deleted. If the enquirer
is not satisfied with Europol's reply or if he has received no
reply within three months, he may refer the matter to the joint
ARTICLE 21: TIME
1. Data in data files shall be held by Europol
only for as long as is necessary for the performance of its tasks.
The need for continued storage shall be reviewed no later than
three years after the input of data. Review of data stored in
the information system and its deletion shall be carried out by
the inputting unit. Review of data stored in other Europol data
files and their deletion shall be carried out by Europol. Europol
shall automatically inform the Member States three months in advance
of the expiry of the time limits for reviewing the storage of
2. During the review, the units referred
to in the third and fourth sentences of paragraph 1 above may
decide on continued storage of data until the next review if this
is still necessary for the performance of Europol's tasks. If
no decision is taken on the continued storage of data, those data
shall automatically be deleted.
3. Storage of personal data relating to
individuals as referred to in point 1 of the first subparagraph
of Article 10(1) may not exceed a total of three years. Each time
limit shall begin to run afresh on the date on which an event
leading to the storage of data relating to that individual occurs.
The need for continued storage shall be reviewed annually and
the review documented.
4. Where a Member State deletes from its
national data files data communicated to Europol which are stored
in other Europol data files, it shall inform Europol accordingly.
In such cases, Europol shall delete data unless it has further
interest in them, based on intelligence that is more extensive
than that possessed by the communicating Member State. Europol
shall inform the Member State concerned of the continued storage
of such data.
5. Deletion shall not occur if it would
damage the interests of the data subject which require protection.
In such cases, the data may be used only with the consent of the
ARTICLE 22: CORRECTION
1. If it emerges that an entire paper file
or data included in that file held by Europol are no longer necessary
for the performance of Europol's tasks, or if the information
concerned is overall in contravention of this Convention, the
paper file or data concerned shall be destroyed. The paper file
or data concerned must be marked as not for use until they have
been effectively destroyed.
Destruction may not take place if there are
grounds for assuming that the legitimate interests of the data
subject would otherwise be prejudiced. In such cases, the paper
file must bear the same note prohibiting all use.
2. If it emerges that data contained in
the Europol paper files are incorrect, Europol shall be obliged
to correct them.
3. Any person covered by a Europol paper
file may claim the right vis-a-vis Europol to correction or destruction
of paper files or the inclusion of a note. Article 20(4) and Article
24(2) and (7) shall be applicable.
ARTICLE 23: NATIONAL
1. Each Member State shall designate a national
supervisory body, the task of which shall be to monitor independently,
in accordance with its respective national law, the permissibility
of the input, the retrieval and any communication to Europol of
personal data by the Member State concerned and to examine whether
this violates the rights of the data subject. For this purpose,
the supervisory body shall have access at the national unit or
at the liaison officers' premises to the data entered by the Member
State in the information system and in the index system in accordance
with the relevant national procedures.
For their supervisory purposes, national supervisory
bodies shall have access to the offices and documents of their
respective liaison officers at Europol.
In addition, in accordance with the relevant
national procedures, the national supervisory bodies shall supervise
the activities of national units under Article 4(4) and the activities
of liaison officers under Article 5(3), points 1 and 3 and Article
5(4) and (5), insofar as such activities are of relevance to the
protection of personal data.
2. Each individual shall have the right
to request the national supervisory body to ensure that the entry
or communication of data concerning him to Europol in any form
and the consultation of the data by the Member State concerned
This right shall be exercised in accordance
with the national law of the Member State to the national supervisory
body of which the request is made.
ARTICLE 24: JOINT
1. An independent joint supervisory body
shall be set up, which shall have the task of reviewing, in accordance
with this Convention, the activities of Europol in order to ensure
that the rights of the individual are not violated by the storage,
processing and utilization of the data held by Europol. In addition,
the joint supervisory body shall monitor the permissibility of
the transmission of data originating from Europol. The joint supervisory
body shall be composed of not more than two members or representatives
(where appropriate assisted by alternates) of each of the national
supervisory bodies guaranteed to be independent and having the
necessary abilities, and appointed for five years by each Member
State. Each delegation shall be entitled to one vote.
The joint supervisory body shall appoint a chairman
from among its members.
In the performance of their duties, the members
of the joint supervisory body shall not receive instructions from
any other body.
2. Europol must assist the joint supervisory
body in the performance of the latter's tasks. In doing so, it
shall, in particular:
(1) supply the information it requests, give
it access to all documents and paper files as well as access to
the data stored in the system; and
(2) allow it free access at any time to all
(3) carry out the joint supervisory body's
decisions on appeals in accordance with the provisions of Articles
19(7) and 20(4).
3. The joint supervisory body shall also
be competent for the examination of questions relating to implementation
and interpretation in connection with Europol's activities as
regards the processing and utilization of personal data, for the
examination of questions relating to checks carried out independently
by the national supervisory bodies of the Member States or relating
to the exercise of the right to information, as well as for drawing
up harmonized proposals for common solutions to existing problems.
4. Each individual shall have the right
to request the joint supervisory body to ensure that the manner
in which his personal data have been collected, stored, processed
and utilized by Europol is lawful and accurate.
5. If the joint supervisory body notes any
violations of the provisions of this Convention in the storage,
processing or utilization of personal data, it shall make any
complaints it deems necessary to the Director of Europol and shall
request him to reply within a time limit to be determined by it.
The Director shall keep the Management Board informed of the entire
procedure. In the event of any difficulty, the joint supervisory
body shall refer the matter to the Management Board.
6. The joint supervisory body shall draw
up activity reports at regular intervals. In accordance with the
procedure laid down in Title VI of the Treaty on European Union,
these shall be forwarded to the Council; the Management Board
shall first have the opportunity to deliver an opinion, which
shall be attached to the reports.
The joint supervisory body shall decide whether
or not to publish its activity report, and, if it decides to do
so, determine how it should be published.
7. The joint supervisory body shall unanimously
adopt its rules of procedure, which shall be submitted for the
unanimous approval of the Council. It shall set up internally
a committee comprising one qualified representative from each
Member State with entitlement to a vote. The commitee shall have
the task of examining the appeals provided for in Articles 19(7)
and 20(4) by all appropriate means. Should they so request, the
parties, assisted by their advisers if they so wish, shall be
heard by the committee. The decisions taken in this context shall
be final as regards all the parties concerned.
8. It may also set up one or more other
9. It shall be consulted on that part of
the budget which concerns it. Its opinion shall be annexed to
the draft budget in question.
10. It shall be assisted by a secretariat,
the tasks of which shall be defined in the rules of procedure.
LEGAL STATUS, ORGANISATION AND FINANCIAL
ARTICLE 28: MANAGEMENT
1. Europol shall have a Management Board.
The Management Board:
(1) shall take part in the extension of Europol's
objective (Article 2(2));
(2) shall define unanimously liaison officers'
rights and obligations towards Europol (Article 5);
(3) shall decide unanimously on the number
of liaison officers the Member States may send to Europol (Article
(4) shall prepare the implementing rules
governing data files (Article 10);
(5) shall take part in the adoption of rules
governing Europol's relations with third States and third bodies
within the meaning of Article 10(4) (Articles 10, 18 and 42);
(6) shall unanimously decide on details concerning
the design of the index system (Article 11);
(7) shall approve by a two-thirds majority
orders opening data files (Article 1 2);
(8) may deliver opinions on the comments
and reports of the joint supervisory body (Article 24);
(9) shall examine problems which the joint
supervisory body brings to attention (Article 24(5));
(10) shall decide on the details of the procedure
for checking the legal character of retrievals in the information
system (Article 16);
(11) shall take part in the appointment and
dismissal of the Director and Deputy Directors (Article 29);
(12) shall oversee the proper perfomance
of the Director's duties (Articles 7 and 29);
(13) shall take part in the adoption of staff
regulations (Article 30);
(14) shall take part in the preparation of
agreements on confidentiality and the adoption of provisions on
the protection of confidentiality (Articles 18 and 31);
(15) shall take part in the drawing up of
the budget including the establishment plan, the auditing and
the discharge to be given to the Director (Articles 35 and 36);
(16) shall adopt unanimously the five-year
financing plan (Article 35);
(17) shall appoint unanimously the financial
controller and oversee the performance of his duties (Article
(18) shall take part in the adoption of the
financial regulation (Article 35);
(19) shall unanimously approve the conclusion
of the headquarters agreement (Article 37);
(20) shall adopt unanimously the rules for
the security clearance of Europol officials;
(21) shall act by a two-thirds majority in
disputes between a Member State and Europol or between Member
States concerning compensation paid under the liability for unauthorised
or incorrect processing of data (Article 38);
(22) shall take part in any amendment of
this Convention (Article 43);
(23) shall be responsible for any other tasks
assigned to it by the Council particularly in provisions for the
implementation of this Convention.
2. The Management Board shall be composed
of one representative of each Member State. Each member of the
Management Board shall have one vote.
3. Each member of the Management Board may
be represented by an alternate member; in the absence of the full
member, the alternate member may exercise his right to vote.
4. The Commission of the European Communities
shall be invited to attend meetings of the Management Board with
non-voting status. However, the Management Board may decide to
meet without the Commission representative.
5. The members or alternate members shall
be entitled to be accompanied and advised by experts from their
respective Member States at meetings of the Management Board.
6. The Management Board shall be chaired
by the representative of the Member State holding the Presidency
of the Council.
7. The Management Board shall unanimously
adopt its rules of procedure.
8. Abstentions shall not prevent the Management
Board from adopting decisions which must be taken unanimously.
9. The Management Board shall meet at least
twice a year.
10. The Management Board shall adopt unanimously
(1) a general report on Europol's activities
during the previous year;
(2) a report on Europol's future activities
taking into account Member States' operational requirements and
budgetary and staffing implications for Europol.
These reports shall be submitted to the Council
in accordance with the procedure laid down in Title VI of the
Treaty on European Union.
ARTICLE 29: DIRECTOR
1. Europol shall be headed by a Director
appointed by the Council, acting unanimously in accordance with
the procedure laid down in Title VI of the Treaty on European
Union after obtaining the opinion of the Management Board, for
a four-year period renewable once.
2. The Director shall be assisted by a number
of Deputy Directors as determined by the Council and appointed
for a four-year period renewable once, in accordance with the
procedure laid down in paragraph 1. Their tasks shall be defined
in greater detail by the Director.
3. The Director shall be responsible for:
(1) performance of the tasks assigned to
(2) day-to-day administration;
(3) personnel management;
(4) proper preparation and implementation
of the Management Board's decisions;
(5) preparing the draft budget, draft establishment
plan and draft five-year financing plan and implementing Europol's
(6) all other tasks assigned to him in this
Convention or by the Management Board.
4. The Director shall be accountable to
the Management Board in respect of the performance of his duties.
He shall attend its meetings.
5. The Director shall be Europol's legal
6. The Director and the Deputy Directors
may be dismissed by a decision of the Council, to be taken in
accordance with the procedure laid down in Title VI of the Treaty
on European Union by a two-thirds majority of the Member States,
after obtaining the opinion of the Management Board.
7. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, the
first term of office after entry into force of this Convention
shall be five years for the Director, four years for his immediate
Deputy and three years for the second Deputy Director.
ARTICLE 31: CONFIDENTIALITY
1. Europol and the Member States shall take
appropriate measures to protect information subject to the requirement
of confidentiality which is obtained by or exchanged with Europol
on the basis of this Convention. To this end the Council shall
unanimously adopt appropriate rules on confidentiality prepared
by the Management Board and submitted to the Council in accordance
with the procedure laid down in Title VI of the Treaty on European
2. Where Europol has entrusted persons with
a sensitive activity, Member States shall undertake to arrange,
at the request of the Director of Europol, for security screening
of their own nationals to be carried out in accordance with their
national provisions and to provide each other with mutual assistance
for the purpose. The relevant authority under national provisions
shall inform Europol only of the results of the security screening,
which shall be binding on Europol.
3. Each Member State and Europol may entrust
with the processing of data at Europol, only those persons who
have had special training and undergone security screening.
ARTICLE 42: RELATIONS
1. In so far as is relevant for the performance
of the tasks described in Article 3, Europol shall establish and
maintain cooperative relations with third bodies within the meaning
of Article 10(4), points 1 to 3. The Management Board shall unanimously
draw up rules governing such relations. This provision shall be
without prejudice to Article 10(4) and (5) and Article 18(2);
exchanges of personal data shall take place only in accordance
with the provisions of Titles 11 to IV of this Convention.
2. In so far as is required for the performance
of the tasks described in Article 3, Europol may also establish
and maintain relations with third States and third bodies within
the meaning of Article 10(4), points 4, 5, 6 and 7. Having obtained
the opinion of the Management Board, the Council, acting unanimously
in accordance with the procedure laid down in Title VI of the
Treaty on European Union, shall draw up rules governing the relations
referred to in the first sentence. The third sentence of paragraph
1 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
ARTICLE 45: ENTRY
1. This Convention shall be subject to adoption
by the Member States in accordance with their respective constitutional
2. Member States shall notify the depositary
of the completion of their constitutional requirements for adopting
3. This Convention shall enter into force
on the first day of the month following the expiry of a three-month
period after the notification, referred to in paragraph 2 by the
Member State of the European Union on the date of adoption by
the Council of the act drawing up this Convention, by the last
Member State to fulfill that formality.
4. Without prejudice to paragraph 2, Europol
shall not take up its activities under this Convention until the
last of the acts provided for in Articles 5(7), 10(1), 24(7),
30(3), 31(1), 35(9), 37 and 41(1) and (2) enters into force.
5. When Europol takes up its activities,
the activities of the Europol Drugs Unit under the joint action
concerning the Europol Drugs Unit of 10 March 1995 shall come
to an end. At the same time, all equipment financed from the Europol
Drugs Unit joint budget, developed or produced by the Europol
Drugs Unit or placed at its disposal free of charge by the headquarters
State for its permanent use, together with that Unit's entire
archives and independently administered data files shall become
the property of Europol.
6. Once the Council has adopted the act
drawing up this Convention, Member States, acting either individually
or in common, shall take all preparatory measures under their
national law which are necessary for the commencement of Europol