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Water Fluoridation

Earl Baldwin of Bewdley asked Her Majesty's Government:

Baroness Jay of Paddington: We understand that it is a fundamental axiom of toxicology that dose determines effect. At high doses, calcium fluoride dissolves poorly and is poorly absorbed from the gut, in comparison with many other fluoride compounds including certain complex inorganic sodium fluorides. At high dose, therefore, its acute toxicity is relatively low. This is irrelevant to the question of the effects of long-term consumption of 1 part per million in drinking water. As would be expected from considerations of physical chemistry, there is no detectable difference in absorption of the fluoride ions whether they occur entirely naturally or whether the naturally occurring concentration has been supplemented by hexafluorosilicic acid or its sodium salt. Some of the human and animal studies which demonstrate this are discussed in Fluorides and Human Health (World Health Organisation, Geneva, 1970), on pages 81-83 and page 86. Furthermore, the numerous studies of the effects of fluoride in drinking water on fluoride levels in bone, blood and urine, and on the health of bone and teeth, provide no evidence that there is any difference between naturally occurring fluoride and fluoride supplementation, at relevant concentrations in drinking water. Evidence from studies by Arnold, Likins, Russell and Scott (1962) and Brown and Poplove (1965) indicates a reduction in dental decay following artificial fluoridation of water supplies to a similar level of dental decay where water contained fluoride at a comparable level from naturally occurring sources.

In addition, naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water is not necessarily accompanied by high levels of calcium; it may, for instance, be accompanied by high levels of sodium and potassium (e.g. Leone NC et al, 1954, Public Health Reports, Vol. 69, pp 925-936, Table 1).

Extracts of the documents mentioned will be placed in the Library.

10 Jun 1998 : Column WA96

Medicines Control Agency: Key Targets

Lord Burlison asked Her Majesty's Government:

    Whether they will list the key business targets for the Medicines Control Agency for 1998-99.[HL2207]

Baroness Jay of Paddington: We have today placed copies of the 1998-99 high level business targets of the Medicines Control Agency in the Library.

Turkey: Licences for Supply of Arms and Military Equipment

Lord Hylton asked Her Majesty's Government:

    Further to the Written Answer by Lord Clinton-Davis on 22 April (WA 220), what goods were exported to Turkey, in each year from 1993 to 1998, under Standard Individual Export Licences ML11 and PL5018 and under Open Individual Export Licence ML5.[HL2100]

The Minister of State, Department of Trade and Industry (Lord Clinton-Davis): Pursuant to my Answers on 7 April and 7 May, I wrote to the noble Lord on 19 May and placed a copy of my letter in the Library of the House. In that letter I gave the following reply:

"The Export Control Organisation's computer databases have been interrogated and the following results were obtained. Between 1 January 1993 and 6 March 1998, 884 Standard Individual Export Licences were issued to export to endusers or consignees in Turkey goods subject to export control by being listed in Part III of Schedule 1 to the Export of Goods (Control) Order (the so-called "Military List"). Between 1 January 1994 and 6 March 1998, 93 Open Individual Export Licences were issued for such exports. The entry in the relevant legislation under which the export of goods is controlled is known as their rating. Individual licences may cover a range of goods with various ratings. Where this is so, the licence is included in the Table in the total for all of the relevant ratings.

Standard Individual Export Licences

Rating199319941995199619971998 (to 6 March)
ML1241212747370
ML2301190
ML3464361
ML415161311102
ML5113591
ML61068452
ML7012210
ML8201110
ML95143990
ML1017195892
ML11423728223812
ML13611400
ML14102020
ML15332210
ML16330031
ML17000021
ML18130010
ML21000020
ML22000010
ML24210100
PL5001000000
PL5002001010
PL5006001000
PL5017011100
PL50184145341520
PL5020000010
PL50211631200
PL5027010000

10 Jun 1998 : Column WA97

Open Individual Export Licences

Rating19941995199619971998 (to 6 March)
ML300100
ML420500
ML522410
ML600300
ML711001
ML820001
ML922330
ML10731001
ML11611851
ML1321500
ML1401400
ML1520110
ML1610100
ML1700200
ML1811100
ML2120000
ML2210200
ML2410200
PL500110100
PL500200100
PL501711200
PL502100100
PL502710100
PL502800100

"These figures exclude Media OIELs, which are Open Individual Export Licences authorising the export to any destination of protective clothing, mainly for the protection of aid agency workers and journalists when working in areas of conflict.

"This information should be considered in light of my answer to a question from the Noble Lord, Lord Gallacher, on 30 October 1997, Official Report, columns 256-258.

"In addition, goods on the Military List may also have been exported to Turkey during the period concerned under various Open General Export Licences. Copies of all such licences are in the Library of the House."


10 Jun 1998 : Column WA98

ML11, PL5018 and ML5 do not refer to particular licences. They are entries in the relevant legislation under which the export of specific types of goods is controlled. Copies of all these statutory instruments are available in the Library of the House.

While the Export Control Organisation maintains records of export licence applications, it does not compile records of actual exports.



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