19 Nov 2012 : Column 401W

Prescription Drugs: Misuse

Jim Dobbin: To ask the Secretary of State for Health who the programme manager is for the National Treatment Agency's research into addiction to prescribed medication. [127887]

Anna Soubry: The Department's policy is that the names of officials should be withheld from disclosure unless they are members of the senior civil service or have a high profile that would justify release. We are accordingly withholding the information requested. The annual accounts of the National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse for 2011-12 list the organisation's executive directors and are available at:

www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/ntaannualaccounts2011-12.pdf

Prostate Cancer

Laura Sandys: To ask the Secretary of State for Health how much funding the Government specifically sets aside for prostate cancer. [128337]

Anna Soubry: The vast majority of funding for prostate cancer is allocated to primary care trusts (PCTs) as part of their annual allocation. It is not ring-fenced as it is for individual PCTs to assess their populations' health needs and to allocate their resources to meet those needs.

The only funding specifically set aside for prostate cancer is for the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP). Since 2002, the PCRMP has been in place to ensure that men over 50 without symptoms of prostate cancer can have a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test free on the national health service after careful consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing and after a discussion with a general practitioner.

NHS Cancer Screening Programmes (NHS CSP) is responsible for the management of the PCRMP and funding provided to NHS CSP for the PCRMP in 2012-13 was £232,000. It is for NHS CSP to determine the final amount needed to deliver the PCRMP.

Radiotherapy

Tessa Munt: To ask the Secretary of State for Health what estimate he has made of the additional NHS funding required to fulfil the Prime Minister’s pledge that all cancer patients in need of innovative radiotherapy will have access to it from April 2013. [127988]

Anna Soubry: We established a £15 million Radiotherapy Innovation Fund from October 2012 to enable providers to prepare to deliver from April 2013 certain advanced radiotherapy to all patients who might benefit.

Our current best estimate is that it will cost up to £10 million a year from April 2013 onwards to meet the Prime Minister’s pledge that patients will be guaranteed access to innovative radiotherapy. Actual costs will depend on decisions by the NHS Commissioning Board on how best to approach implementation.

Tessa Munt: To ask the Secretary of State for Health (1) with reference to section 3.27 of his Department's report on Radiotherapy Service in England 2012, for

19 Nov 2012 : Column 402W

what reason three of the four new cancer centres planned are situated in the South East of England; and for what reason none are being built in the South West of England; [128280]

(2) with reference to table 3 of his Department's report on Radiotherapy Service in England 2012, whether a lack of modern radiotherapy equipment prevents all the cancer centres in the South West region of England from delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy at no more than two per cent of all radical episodes; [128281]

(3) with reference to section 2.6 of his Department's report on Radiotherapy Service in England 2012, if he will conduct an economic study to measure the financial effectiveness and benefit to cancer patients of the money the NHS spends on cancer drugs against that spent on radiotherapy; [128290]

(4) with reference to section 3.36 of his Department's report on Radiotherapy Service in England 2012, when work will begin to establish the effectiveness of treating solitary metastases, early lung and prostate cancer with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. [128291]

Anna Soubry: We are advised by NHS South that radiotherapy capacity in the South West is currently able to meet the needs of patients requiring radiotherapy treatment within the appropriate timeframes. Local planning has anticipated that the current levels of provision will be suitable up to at least 2016. As such, there are no plans to build additional radiotherapy centres at this time. Page 26 of the report Radiotherapy Services in England 2012 also shows that a new radiotherapy centre was built in Taunton in 2009.

Almost all radiotherapy machines in the national health service in England are capable of delivering Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). There are likely to be a range of reasons why IMRT activity remains low in some centres. Recognising that there may be one-off set-up costs such as additional software licences and staff training required to establish services, a £15 million radiotherapy innovation fund has been established for 2012-13. This fund will enable centres to ensure that they are ready to deliver IMRT at the right levels from April 2013. There will be a fixed sum allocated to all centres and bids have been sought for the remainder of the fund. Intensive support is also being provided to help centres develop and implement local action plans.

Work to establish the effectiveness of treating solitary metastases, early lung and prostate cancer with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy needs to be undertaken in clinical trials. Radiotherapy related research is complex and requires centres of excellence with critical mass to lead the process as well as a network of active centres to recruit to clinical trials. The National Cancer Research Institute Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group coordinates radiotherapy research initiatives and is likely to have a key role in coordinating research in this area.

The Department currently has no plans to conduct an economic study to measure the financial effectiveness and benefit to cancer patients of the money the NHS spends on cancer drugs against that spent on radiotherapy.

Cancer treatment falls into three main categories: chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Each has a different role and they can be used in combination to

19 Nov 2012 : Column 403W

treat an individual patient. While chemotherapy is directly responsible for the cure of fewer patients, it has a greater role to play in the palliation of symptoms.

A common framework is used across different health treatment setting to permit relative merits of new drugs and technological advances to be evaluated and judged if they offer good value for money.

Radiotherapy: Wells

Tessa Munt: To ask the Secretary of State for Health where the nearest cancer centre is at which cancer patients in Wells constituency can receive stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment for tumours of the (a) prostate, (b) lung, (c) liver and (d) brain. [127989]

Anna Soubry: We are advised that the nearest cancer centre for patients from Wells to receive stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment for tumours is the Royal Marsden hospital in Sutton, Surrey.

Registration of Births, Deaths, Marriages and Civil Partnerships

Patrick Mercer: To ask the Secretary of State for Health how many deaths of people aged (a) under five, (b) between five and 14, (c) between 15 and 44, (d) between 45 and 59, (e) between 60 and 69 and (f) over 70 which occurred in (i) 2005, (ii) 2006, (iii) 2007 and (iv) 2008 were (A) registered by the end of 2011, (B) registered by the end of 2011, with a delay between death date and death registration date exceeding 90 days, (C) registered by the end of 2011, with a delay between death date and death registration date exceeding

19 Nov 2012 : Column 404W

182 days and (D) registered by the end of 2011, with a delay between death date and death registration date exceeding 365 days. [128345]

Mr Hurd: I have been asked to reply on behalf of the Cabinet Office.

The information requested falls within the responsibility of the UK Statistics Authority. I have asked the authority to reply.

Letter from Glen Watson, dated November 2012:

As Director General for the Office for National Statistics, I have been asked to reply to your recent question asking' how many deaths of people aged (a) under five, (b) between five and 14, (c) between 15 and 44, (d) between 45 and 59, (e) between 60 and 69 and (f) over 70 which occurred in (i) 2005, (ii) 2006, (iii) 2007 and (iv) 2008 were (A) registered by the end of 2011, (B) registered by the end of 2011, with a delay between death date and death registration date exceeding 90 days, (C) registered by the end of 2011, with a delay between death date and death registration date exceeding 182 days and (D) registered by the end of 2011, with a delay between death date and death registration date exceeding 365 days. [128345]

The following table provides the number of deaths in England and Wales that occurred between 2005 and 2008 and were registered by the end of 2011. Registration delays exceeding 90 days, 182 days and 365 days are presented by age group.

Annual figures on the number of deaths registered by sex, age group and cause in England and Wales are available from the Office for National Statistics at:

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/all-releases.html? definition=tcm%3A77-27475

Further details on the impact of registration delays on mortality statistics are available at:

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/user-guidance/health-and-life-events/impact-of-registration-delays-on-mortality-statistics--2011.html

Number of death registrations by age group and duration of registration delay in England and Wales, 2005 to 2008(1,2)
Deaths
 Age group (years)Exceeding 90 daysExceeding 182 daysExceeding 365 daysAll registrations

2005

0-4

649

364

115

3,877

 

5-14

229

143

49

757

 

15-44

6,674

3,504

919

17,842

 

45-59

3,623

1,585

396

40,278

 

60-69

2,276

1,010

230

61,379

 

70+

5,980

2,531

539

390,945

2006

0-4

642

346

110

3,938

 

5-14

214

125

39

752

 

15-44

6,850

3,787

970

17,734

 

45-59

3,816

1,799

459

40,100

 

60-69

2,430

1,107

263

60,484

 

70+

6,220

2,797

611

381,288

2007

0-4

701

391

145

3,963

 

5-14

215

138

45

715

 

15-44

7,262

4,315

1,249

17,738

 

45-59

4,205

2,156

554

38,990

 

60-69

2,798

1,370

366

61,178

 

70+

7,123

3,587

942

383,272

2008

0-4

723

395

127

3,924

 

5-14

209

121

43

641

 

15-44

7,020

3,925

1,139

17,407

 

45-59

4,166

2,048

530

38,125

 

60-69

2,849

1,342

346

61,399

19 Nov 2012 : Column 405W

19 Nov 2012 : Column 406W

 

70+

7,423

3,552

980

387,395

(1) Figures are for deaths occurring in each year and registered by 31 December 2011. (2) Figures include deaths of non-residents. Source: Office for National Statistics

Streptococcus

Naomi Long: To ask the Secretary of State for Health (1) what effect he expects the 2012 update to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Prevention of early onset neonatal group B streptoccal disease guidelines to have on rates of group B streptococcus infections in newborn babies; [128273]

(2) how many responses have been received by the UK National Screening Committee consultation on introducing routine screening for group B streptococcus in pregnant women; [128274]

(3) how many meetings he has had with (a) officials and (b) stakeholders to discuss the UK National Screening Committee’s review of group B streptococcus screening for pregnant women. [128275]

Dr Poulter: The national guidelines for prevention of early onset neonatal group B streptococcus disease are developed to set the standards for high quality health care. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists published on 18 July 2012 the revised Green-Top guideline, originally published in November 2003, to take into account new evidence on the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) disease. In addition, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published a new guideline on antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of early-onset neonatal infection, including GBS on 22 August 2012.

The UK National Screening Committee (UK NSC) advises Ministers and the national health service in all four United Kingdom countries about all aspects of screening policy, including screening policy for GBS carriage in pregnancy. In 2008-09, the UK NSC recommended that a national screening programme to test for GBS carriage in pregnancy using the enriched culture medium test should not be offered. The UK NSC is currently reviewing the evidence for screening for GBS carriage in pregnancy against its criteria again.

The UK NSC held a public consultation on its screening review from 16 July 2012 to 23 October 2012. In total, 212 written responses were received. The UK NSC will consider all of the submissions made during the consultation at its 13 November 2012 meeting. All consultation replies will be available on the UK NSC’s website following the meeting apart from those where stakeholder organisations or individuals have requested that their response is not made public. The Department expects to receive a recommendation from the UK NSC shortly.

A meeting between the former Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Health, my hon. Friend the Member for Guildford (Anne Milton), and officials took place on 10 January 2012 to discuss screening for GBS carriage in pregnancy. The former Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Health also hosted a meeting to discuss the UK NSC’s antenatal screening for GBS carriage review on 24 January 2012. Attendees included the UK NSC, the charity Group B Strep Support and Members of Parliament.

Tranquillisers

Jim Dobbin: To ask the Secretary of State for Health (1) what his Department's policy is on the closure of specialist tranquilliser withdrawal clinics; [127888]

(2) what steps his Department is taking to reduce the over-prescribing of tranquillisers by doctors. [127889]

Anna Soubry: I refer the hon. Member to the reply I gave him on 15 October 2012, Official Report, columns 175-6W.

Jim Dobbin: To ask the Secretary of State for Health pursuant to the answer of 15 October 2012, Official Report, columns 175-6W, on tranquillisers, whether his Department retains oversight of policy on addiction to medicines; whether stand-alone tranquilliser addiction will be treated by the National Treatment Agency or whether treatment will only be provided when such addictions occur in association with misuse of drugs; and where the information not collected centrally is held and how it can be obtained. [128083]

Anna Soubry: The Department retains oversight of policy on addiction to medicines. For information about the providers of locally-commissioned services, the hon. Member should approach the relevant local commissioner.

Primary care trusts, not the National Treatment Agency, are currently responsible for commissioning specialist services for the treatment of dependency. This responsibility will transfer to local authorities from April 2013. An individual patient who is worried that they are addicted to a prescription medicine should raise the issue with the prescribing doctor, so that they can have a discussion about the help that they might need.

The Government's Drug Strategy published in December 2010 made clear that we are determined to tackle dependence on any substance including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, alcohol and illicit drugs.

Jim Dobbin: To ask the Secretary of State for Health with reference to the answer of 20 July 2009, Official Report, column 1008W, on tranquillisers, what steps he has taken to ensure that the National Treatment Agency programme of work on prescribed medication will produce high-quality and effective services for tranquilliser withdrawal. [128095]

Anna Soubry: The work of the National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse is overseen by its Board of Directors, and as an arm's length body, it is accountable to the Department for progress against its Action Plan for 2012-13.

19 Nov 2012 : Column 407W

Transplant Surgery

Andrew Rosindell: To ask the Secretary of State for Health (1) how many people received an organ transplant in 2011; [128207]

(2) what recent steps he has taken to encourage people to become organ donors; [128208]

(3) how many people in the London borough of Havering received an organ transplant in 2011; [128209]

Anna Soubry: NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) advise that, in 2011, 3,890 people received an organ transplant in the United Kingdom and 14 people received a transplant in the London borough of Havering.

Since the publication in 2008 of the Organ Donation Taskforce (ODTF) plan for a 50% improvement in donation rates by 2013, a great deal of work has taken place to strengthen the donation programme and increase the number of organs available for patients. Since then organ donor rates have increased by around 40% and continue to rise.

We have a number of initiatives to encourage people to add their name to the organ donation register (ODR). Much of this work is led by NHSBT in conjunction with a number of partners in the private, public and third sectors. For example, people may sign up to the ODR when they register with a new general practitioner, when applying for a new passport, when applying for a European Health Insurance Card and when applying for a Boots advantage card. We have established a prompted choice scheme, working in partnership with the Department of Transport and the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency, which requires people applying for a driving licence online to answer a question about organ donation.

Also, there are how over 200 highly trained specialist nurses for organ donation based in hospitals across the country. Clinical leads for organ donation have been appointed in every acute hospital working closely with hospital organ donation committees to increase donation rates.

NHSBT are now in the process of developing their post 2013 strategy—building on the ODTF recommendations and identifying new ways to make sure that as many people as possible in the UK receive the transplant they need.

We have also set up the National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Transplant Alliance to increase the number of Black, Asian and minority ethnic people on bone marrow and whole organ registers, and to increase donation rates in those communities.

Universal Credit

Mr McCann: To ask the Secretary of State for Health how the qualifying conditions for each passported benefit for which he is responsible will change under universal credit. [128334]

Norman Lamb: The administration of passported benefits is the responsibility of a number of Government Departments and the devolved Administrations. We are currently working across government to ensure that we introduce universal credit in a way that works smoothly

19 Nov 2012 : Column 408W

with all passported benefits while ensuring that these benefits continue to be available to the families that need them most.

We will announce our eligibility criteria in due course.

Vitamin D

Jim Shannon: To ask the Secretary of State for Health (1) what steps he is taking to address vitamin D deficiency amongst young girls; [128502]

(2) what discussions he has had with hospital trusts to ensure that pregnant women receive the correct dosage of vitamin D. [128504]

Anna Soubry: The Department has not had any formal discussions with hospital trusts regarding the dose of vitamin D pregnant women should receive.

The UK Chief Medical Officers (CMOs) wrote to health professionals on 2 February 2012 to raise awareness of the importance of vitamin D and to reiterate the current advice from UK Health Departments that those groups of people who are at risk of vitamin D deficiency, including pregnant women and young children, should take a daily vitamin D supplement to prevent vitamin D deficiency.

The CMOs' letter specifically stated that all pregnant and breastfeeding women should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D. The NHS London Medicines Information Service has compiled a list of vitamin D supplements that will provide the amounts of vitamin D recommended by the Department for different age groups. This list is available on the National Electronic Library for Medicines website and was also sent to pharmacy organisations in March 2012.

As part of the Government's Healthy Start scheme, vouchers that can be exchanged for free vitamin supplements containing the recommended amounts of vitamin D are provided to pregnant women and families with children under four years of age in very low income and disadvantaged families. All pregnant women under 18 years old also qualify for the scheme, even if they do not receive any of the benefits or tax credits listed in the eligibility criteria.

UK Health Departments advise that most people, including young girls over the age of five years, should be able to get all the vitamin D they need via exposure to summer sunlight and eating a healthy balanced diet.

Window Blinds: Accidents

Andrew Rosindell: To ask the Secretary of State for Health what steps he is taking to ensure that parents are aware of the potential hazards of window blind cords to young children. [128317]

Dr Poulter: NHS Choices website has information and advice on child injury prevention including a video on risks to young children within the home. This includes reference to the potential hazards of blind cords. The Government also funds the Royal Society for Accident Prevention for projects around the home to prevent tragic deaths, including childhood deaths from strangulation by blind cords.

19 Nov 2012 : Column 409W

Deputy Prime Minister

Trident

Mr Ainsworth: To ask the Deputy Prime Minister what assessment he has made of the current indicative year-on-year profile of spending on the development phase of the replacement for Trident. [126934]

Mr Dunne [holding answer 6 November 2012]:I have been asked to reply on behalf of the Ministry of Defence.

The Initial Gate decision for the Successor Submarine Programme was announced to Parliament on 18 May 2011 at an estimated cost of some £3 billion. The latest forecast year-on-year profile of spending on the programme, out to the Main Gate investment decision in 2016, forecast by the Ministry of Defence as at 31 March 2012, is as follows:

Financial yearCosts (£ million)

2012-13

431

2013-14

486

2014-15

595

2015-16

695

2016-17

608

International Development

Bangladesh

Mrs Main: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development pursuant to the answer of 22 October 2012, Official Report, column 724W, on Bangladesh, how much was spent training each government official. [128190]

Mr Duncan: All projects selected for the Civil Society Challenge Fund were required to show that the budget required for the proposed work was realistic, economic and efficient. The project referred to in the answer of 22 October 2012 was closed in 2010. DFID does not have information about the exact level of resources spent on training for each government official.

Mrs Main: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development pursuant to the answer of 22 October 2012, Official Report, column 724W, on Bangladesh, how the project assisted people to understand their rights and entitlements. [128191]

Mr Duncan: The project assisted people to understand their rights and entitlements through various activities including: production and dissemination of information materials and leaflets on the right to information; implementation of a training course for elected representatives and for civil society organisations; follow-up support to 50 members of Parliament plus local government officials; and organised 160 workshops with the public on their right to information. In addition, training and debates were conducted with schools, colleges and journalists in 64 districts. A national level convention on International Information was organised. The project also developed and disseminated a booklet on community radio to create broader access to information for poor communities.

19 Nov 2012 : Column 410W

Developing Countries: Urban Areas

Mr Ivan Lewis: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what her key urban development priorities are. [128515]

Justine Greening: In addressing the many opportunities and challenges presented by rapid urbanisation, the priorities that we have identified and for which we have programmes include: the need to provide the poor with proper services and housing; ensuring cities are resilient to the impacts of climate change; and improving city management and governance.

EU Aid

Mr Ivan Lewis: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development whether she will support the European Development Fund's proposed level of £30 billion in the EU budget negotiations. [128517]

Justine Greening: The UK's top priority in the negotiations for the European Union (EU) budget and European Development Fund (EDF) in the period 2014 to 2020 is that the level of EU expenditure must be carefully contained. We oppose increases beyond real growth in any area of EU expenditure, including the EDF. However, we believe that it is also important to maintain or increase the proportion of Official Development Assistance within a restrained overall budget.

India

Keith Vaz: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development (1) what plans she has for the redistribution of UK aid to India; [127975]

(2) what her timescale is for the reduction of UK aid to India. [127976]

Justine Greening: I refer the right hon. Member to my written ministerial statement of 9 November 2012, Official Report, column 51WS. As a result of our decision to make no new financial aid grants to India, plans for reallocating these sums to other Department for International Development programmes have not yet been finalised.

Financial aid grants will start to fall from the current financial year, and will be completed by the end of 2015.

Mr Ivan Lewis: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what projects currently funded by her Department in India will cease by 2015. [128516]

Justine Greening: The following ongoing projects are expected to close by 2015:

DFID India projects closing by 2015

State level projects

Bihar Governance and Administrative Reform Programme

Kolkata Urban Services for the Poor

Madhya Pradesh Health Sector Support

Madhya Pradesh Power Sector Reform—Phase 2

Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project—Phase 2

Madhya Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor

19 Nov 2012 : Column 411W

Orissa Health Sector Support

National projects

Reproductive and Child Health Programme Phase II

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan II (Universal elementary education)

Mahila Samakhya (Gender equality and women's empowerment)

Support to National Policies for Urban Poverty Reduction

Civil society and multilaterals

UNICEF Strategic Partnership in India

DFID—Asian Development Bank Partnership for India

Other

Impact Evaluation Fund

Mr Ivan Lewis: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what funding her Department will spend in India after 2015. [128521]

Justine Greening: DFID will conclude all its financial aid grants to India by 2015 as planned. After 2015, DFID's bilateral programme in India will include only technical assistance programmes and investments in private sector projects which give opportunities to poor people while generating a financial return. Budgets for this work have not yet been finalised.

Mr Jim Cunningham: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what analysis her Department undertook to inform the decision to withdraw UK financial aid to India; and if she will make a statement. [128668]

Justine Greening: My officials in Delhi regularly monitor India's economic performance and development progress. More information on the decision can be found in the written ministerial statement of 9 November 2012, Official Report, column 51WS.

Mr Jim Cunningham: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what assessment her Department has made of the potential effect of the withdrawal of UK financial aid to India on poverty levels in India. [128669]

Justine Greening: India is expected to achieve the millennium development goal of halving the proportion of people living under $1.25 per day by 2015.

St Helena

Stephen Barclay: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development with reference to her planned funding of an airport at St Helena, what the estimated (a) total cost and (b) cost is of the airport in each of the next five years, including preparatory and associated spend. [128995]

Mr Duncan: I refer my hon. Friend to the written ministerial statement of 3 November 2011, Official

19 Nov 2012 : Column 412W Report

, column 50WS, which provided details of the Design Build and Operate contract for the St Helena airport. Estimated payments under this contract over the next five years are:

 £ million

2012-13

75.6

2013-14

54.2

2014-15

30.5

2015-16

2.7

2016-17

3.2

The contract amount comprises most of the total estimated cost. We have also allowed for other related expenditure, but it would be inappropriate to release further financial estimates as this could influence future procurement and negotiations.

Stephen Barclay: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development with reference to her planned funding of an airport at St Helena, and her key goal of boosting the local economy, what assessment her Department has made of the likely level of demand to visit the island. [129018]

Mr Duncan: A great deal of analysis has been done in this area. The 2005 feasibility study into the provision of access to St Helena included an assessment of potential tourism demand. This was based on original research, a survey of tourism operators, and studies of tourism growth in other island communities that have experienced significant improvements in air access. The figures were independently reviewed and revised in 2008 and again in 2010. The conclusion of this work is that tourist numbers are likely to increase from around 1,000 a year under the current sea access arrangements to around 29,000 a year within 25 years of the opening of the airport. Investment in an airport is justified even without such an increase in tourism.

Stephen Barclay: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development with reference to her planned funding of an airport at St Helena, what assessment her Department has made of the sufficiency of the cargo capacity of any likely aircraft service to replace that currently provided by ship. [129019]

Mr Duncan: While there will be an opportunity for limited air cargo on flights to St Helena, it is not expected that this will replace the current cargo capacity of the RMS St Helena. UK Government subsidy to the RMS St Helena will cease on commencement of air services, and we will assist the St Helena Government in establishing alternative sea cargo services through commercial shipping.