5 Retaining, valuing and developing
Movement, wastage, and barriers
84. The Department for Education told us that "retention
of teachers is low", and that "of those who are employed
in the maintained sector in the first year of qualifying, 73%
were still teaching in the maintained sector five years later".
However, the statistics for those who began teacher training show
the percentage teaching in the maintained sector five years after
qualification is even lower at 52% for undergraduate routes and
57% for postgraduate.
85. Wastagethe loss from the maintained sector
of qualified teachers, and particularly where it concerns those
of the highest quality or in the most challenged schoolsis
clearly cause for concern. This is partly because teacher training
and development incurs a cost to the state and to schools, as
well as to the individual, but also becauseas Cambridge
University told us"a key factor in inner city schools
is the lack of teacher continuity and low retention rates".
This view was supported by Sir Peter Lampl:
This is probably the main focus of the money we are
spending on [the] Education Endowment Foundation. We got £125
million to just address issues of kids on free school meals at
inner-city schools. The most important factor in those schools
is how you get good teachers into those schools in the first place
and get them to stay there.
Smithers and Robinson found that "the more challenged
secondary schools are more likely to lose teachers to other schools",
whichalthough not wastage for the system as a wholeunderpins
the concerns noted above.
86. Teach First was founded to encourage graduates
to spend two years teaching in a disadvantaged school before moving
into their eventual career. In fact over half stay beyond the
two years and of course we do not yet know how many others may
return to teaching later in life.
In terms of gaining QTS, the proportion who begin training with
Teach First and achieve qualification is higher (95%)
than the comparable average figures for university-led (88%),
SCITT (91%) and EBITT (92%) provision.
To an extent, this further strengthens our support for the Government's
expansion of Teach First, particularly given that a good percentage
of those Teach First participants who do leave teaching in England
remain engaged in education in other ways for example,
teaching overseas (3% of the 2009 cohort) or working in non-teaching
education roles (7% from 2009).
Teach First has suggested some of the key factors which might
improve retention including the leadership and ethos of a school,
opportunities for career progression or additional responsibility,
and awareness of and support for a teacher's wider role.
87. These factors bear some relation to the most
commonly-cited barriers to retention of good teacher: Smithers
and Robinson find that the five main reasons which "underpin
reasons for leaving" the profession are workload, new challenge,
school situation, personal circumstance, and salary, with workload
"by far the most important, and salary the least".
However, in later research, Smithers and Robinson also argue the
important distinction between movement of teachers between schools
(which they term 'moveage', and on which they argue for statistics
to be regularly collected and published) and the loss of teachers
from the system (wastage).
It is important, the research argues, "not to think of turnover
Indeed, this is one reason why it is important to
distinguish moveage from wastage which by definition should be
kept to a minimum. Attention should be focussed on what constitutes
an optimal level for moveage since too little can be as damaging
as too much.
It is worth noting, as well, that wastage in itself
may present little cause for concern if more good teachers and
fewer weak teachers are recruited in the first place (as we discuss
in previous chapters).
88. Although the loss to the system of good teachers
is regrettable, it is worth noting that a teacher gaining QTS
at age 22 could spend over forty years in a profession which,
as we discuss later in this chapter, currently has limited promotion
prospects. It is also worth noting that other broadly comparable
schemespublic sector graduate professions with similar
starting salarieshave similar retention rates to teaching,
if not worse. For example, the NHS Graduate Management Training
Scheme reports a three-year retention rate of 79%, dropping to
64% after five years. Furthermore, a report by the NHS cites research
by the Association of Graduate Recruiters and argues that "it
is clear that the days when a graduate joins a company from university
and opts to stay for the bulk of their career are well and truly
report suggests that 10% of graduates leave their company within
a year, 20% within three years, and 35% within five years.
89. We agree
with research arguing that movement and wastage must be distinguished
from each other, and that in light of that (and comparable figures
from other professions) retention rates amongst the profession
as a whole perhaps present less cause of concern than sometimes
suggested. However, the retention of the best teachers is clearly
desirable, and we recommend that the Department for Education
commission detailed research on the barriers to retention, better
to inform the development of policy on teacher training and supply.
The research should also look at the impact of, and potential
to diminish (including through incentivising staff), the loss
of the best teachers, particularly in the most challenged schools.
Finally, it should examine the quality of those teachers leaving
the profession: whilst retention of the best is clearly important,
loss of the worst is not to be regretted.
THE IMPACT OF PAY
90. Our inquiry looked at pay and conditions only
in the context of barriers to retention, although we did hear
some calls for teachers' pay to be raised. Sir Peter Lampl argued
that paying teachers more would increase their professional status,
and the teacher unions agreed, unsurprisingly.
Dr Mary Bousted, whilst acknowledging that the 1990s had seen
"significant catch-up increases in teachers' pay", expressed
concerns that "a two-year pay freeze and a 1% pay cap"
meant that pay was perceived as being poor.
Whilst one headteacher in York said there was "no easy answer"
on pay, and admitted that "no one will say no to more money",
a colleague was of the view that teaching was now "a well-paid
91. Despite this important debate, salary was not
(as per the Smithers and Robinson research) cited as a principal
barrier to retention, where new challenge and workload were. Evidence
suggests that, as well as starting salaries being broadly in line
with the OECD average (see Chapter 3 above), salaries after fifteen
years for English teachers were also above OECD averages.
However, the salary at the top of the teacher pay scale was, in
England, below the OECD average for both primary and secondary
schools, and English teachers took much less time than their international
counterparts to reach the top of the scale; compared to Korea,
for example, English teachers earn comparably at career start,
less after fifteen years, and almost half as much at the top of
the scale, which suggests some need for rebalancing. However,
compared to other world-leading countries such as Finland, England
is broadly in line (or above) throughout, so it cannot be confidently
stated that pay directly increases ease of recruitment or retention.
We make no separate recommendation concerning pay, as we believe
our views and recommendation on career progression, below, cover
the issue adequately. However, we do, below, discuss the case
for performance-related pay and reward of those teachers who make
the biggest contribution to pupil and subsequent societal performance.
Professional development and
92. If evidence on the impact of both movement and
wastage is somewhat scant, then proof of the importance of professional
development and career progression in combating their negative
side-effects is more abundant. Teachers interviewed in 2005 cited
career development and the desire for new challenge as the two
most important factors (by some margin) in moving between schools:
over 50% of respondents ranked them as "of great importance"
in determining a move.
'Professional development opportunities' and 'moving on promotion'
were also ranked highly amongst surveyed teachers.
93. These findings support the range of evidence
which acknowledges the importance of professional development
opportunities, including chances for promotion, in teachers' careers,
as for the majority of other professions. That evidence was, in
turn, supported by the unanimous calls for improvements to teachers'
professional development opportunities which we heard during our
inquiry. Despite this, successive education ministers have neglected
continuing professional development (CPD) and focused overly much
on initial teacher trainingat most, four years of a teacher's
career, compared with a potential 40 or more thereafterand
the DfE's recent teacher training implementation plan featured
almost no reference to CPD.
94. The benefits of professional development opportunities
are various and profound. For individual teachers, CPD provides
opportunities to update subject knowledge, to keep up-to-speed
with policy and practice changes, to learn from colleagues in
different schools or settings (and thus gain a valuable wider
perspective, particularly crucial given the short length of ITT
placements), and to develop new pedagogical techniques.
Not least because many completing ITT do not continue in teaching,
"investment in existing teachers and their development"
is, as the Institute of Education has said, crucial "if we
are serious about improving educational outcomes for young people".
This view was supported by some pupils we met who suggested that
older teachers, in particular, benefited from opportunities to
develop or improve their practice. Because CPD can be the "engine
of change in schools" as well as improving the practice of
individual teachers, its importance should not be underestimated.
IMPROVING TEACHERS' ACCESS TO CPD
95. The Institute of Education cited evidence showing
that the "proportion of teacher time devoted to CPD in England
is lower than in the best-performing school systems".
In Singapore, Committee members saw first-hand the benefits of
a fixed CPD 'allowance': there, all teachers are entitled to 100
hours of CPD per year, as well as a small personal budget (equivalent
to around £200-£350 per year)
to spend on materials to support professional activity (such as
magazine subscriptions or personal computers). Both research studies
and evidence to our inquiry
support replicating such a policy in England, which also proved
popular with teachers we interviewed. However, teachers did not
support the idea of extending the school year to accommodate this
(as is the case in Singapore), explaining that much CPD already
takes place in their 'free time' as it is. Nonetheless, a number
of academies have already rearranged or extended the school year,
and others have plans to do so; one advantage of this is that
it increases time for teachers to spend on their own professional
development during paid hours.
At academies in the Harris Federation, for example, teachers
work an extra five days (or equivalent, at evenings or weekends)
per year, specifically for CPD, and are paid accordingly. This
is a model which might be replicated by other such networks of
schools, whether formal (in the case of the Harris Federation)
or more ad hoc. In addition, the federation runs a number of
CPD events of its own, including for support staff.
96. Other solutions proposed include a national strategy
for CPD, chartered
status or other career structure improvements (which we discuss
below), and creating more space in a teacher's timetable for CPD,
as in Finlandalthough
teachers argued that might have the same ultimate effect of increasing
the school year. Both the perception and accreditation of CPD
were raised as key concerns. Teachers pointed out to us that,
crucially, CPD must not just be seen as 'going on courses', with
some arguing that external training had had its day, and that
in-house CPD was often more valuable as it was easier for teachers
to keep in touch after the event. Academic and teacher trainer
Alison Kitson agreed that an entitlement to CPD would prove beneficial
only "as long as it is high quality CPD" rather than
"a 'Tick, I have done my 30 hours this year'".
97. The idea of sabbaticals and secondments for teachers
was also raised, and the potential summarised by Professor Chris
Often, if you want to engage in some deeper understanding
of the work of another country or another system, you need a longer
period of time, rather than the tourist going in and just trying
to catch the feel for something [...] It might be because [teachers]
want to do some research in a particular area, or it might be
because they have identified leadership in another organisation
that they would like to explore. I think those learning opportunities
could also be built very well into a professional development
package. However, they do need more time invested in them than
just going on a day here and there [...]
98. The idea won considerable favour with Sir Michael
Wilshaw who, in his pre-appointment hearing with the Committee
for the position as HM Chief Inspector at Ofsted, said:
I have never had a sabbatical so I would strongly
support that, because there is an element of burnout and people
need to be refreshed. This all comes down to money at the end
of the day and whether it can be afforded. I think it has to be,
and we have to look at creative ways of doing thisof giving
people who are successfully doing very tough jobs time off to
refresh themselves. Although I have never taken a sabbatical,
when I have noticed someone on my staff suffering because of burnouta
successful person who is not backsliding and wanting more time
offthen I have found the money to do that.
It also won support from teachers and heads themselves;
Anna Cornhill said that to have such sabbaticals "sanctioned
as a good part of the profession would be fantastic".
are clear that, for too long, CPD for teachers has lacked coherence
and focus. Despite financial constraints which we acknowledge
and appreciate, we are concerned that England lags seriously behind
its international competitors in this regard, and recommend that
the Government consult on the quality, range, scope and content
of a high-level strategy for teachers' CPD, and with an aim of
introducing an entitlement for all teaching staff as soon as feasible.
The consultation should include proposals for a new system of
accrediting CPD, to ensure that opportunities are high-quality
and consistent around the country.
100. Alongside our proposed CPD entitlement, we
recommend that the Government develop and implement a National
Teacher Sabbatical Scholarship scheme to allow outstanding teachers
to undertake education-related research, teach in a different
school, refresh themselves in their subjects, or work in an educational
organisation or Government department. In addition to the likely
positive impacts on individual teachers and schools, we believe
such an investment would help raise the profession's status amongst
existing and potential teachers.
DEVELOPING BETTER CAREER PATHS FOR
101. Our inquiry also heard numerous arguments in
favour of more structured career progression opportunities for
teachers, in particular for those who do not want to become school
leaders. Philippa Mitchell, a primary headteacher, argued that
"we still have a system in which the most effective teachers
are encouraged to go for promotion and thus out of the classroom
within a relatively short space of time",
and Professor John Howson noted that that even those who become
departmental heads can face "the possibility of approximately
a quarter of a century with either no or only very limited further
Dr Mary Bousted, of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers,
said that "the system just does not think about career paths
for teachers who want to stay in the classroom",
a statement supported by many of the teachers we met during our
investigations; similarly, Stephen Hillier argued that "the
greatest thing we could do over the next ten years is [...] in
creating a real pinnacle for the subject expert".
102. In Singapore, frequently cited by the Government
as an education system from which England should learn, teachers
elect to join one of three career paths (between which they can
move), all of which offer opportunities for progression throughout
a teacher's career:
Fig. 7: Career paths for teachers in Singapore
This career structure allows all teachers to pursue
their own particular interests and strengths, whether in pedagogy,
leadership or an area of specialism such as behaviour management
or curriculum development. It also allows teachers to spend time
working across a group of schools, in local roles, or in the Ministry
of Education, and enables career (and pay) progression without
forcing the best classroom practitioners to reduce their teaching
hours. Although the leadership track was perceived as the most
valuable, Singaporean teachers generally appeared supportive and
appreciative of the pathway system.
103. Teachers and trainers in England were also attracted
to the idea. One academic and former teacher supported the possibility,
recalling her own experience:
I did not want to become a headteacher, and yet I
was a forward-looking, ambitious teacher wanting to make a real
difference in the classroom. Finding routes, when I was a young
teacher, was very difficult [...] I know that a lot of younger
teachers [and] experienced teachers also feel that strongly. Having
a route for teachers, other than headship and management, is really
Tony Finn, Chief Executive of the General Teaching
Scotland for Scotland, reminisced similarly that he "never
set out, as a classroom teacher, to end up doing the job I am
doing", and argued the case for a system allowing "different
routes of progression, which are not exclusive one to the other,
and allow people to move between pathways".
104. There have been attempts in England to create
an 'advanced' level for classroom teachers, including Post-Threshold,
Excellent Teacher, and Advanced Skills Teacher (AST), all of which
are being discontinued following the recent review of Teacher
Standards (see paragraph 115 below).
Although some witnesses told us AST had been "incredibly
and "a good thing to have",
our inquiry also heard concerns which echoed the Secretary of
State's view that the current standards system was "complex
and highly bureaucratic".
105. The standards review recommended the introduction
of a new, single 'Master Teacher' standard. Our predecessor Committee's
teacher training inquiry suggested an alternative, more overarching
solution to the issue of teachers' career development: a framework
"establishing a clearly articulated set of expectations for
teachers and progression routes", with the potential to link
"professional development, qualifications, pay and the licence
to practise" (which the report recommended should be renewed
every five years).
106. Although there would be complexities involved
in the design, development and implementation of a new career
structure for teachers in the UK, such a move could bring considerable
benefits, not least ensuring that workloads and responsibilities
between schools are more equal, and addressing concerns, summarised
above, about the lack of career opportunities for those who wish
to remain in the classroom. Such a system might enable teachers
from all paths to become leaders eventually, but allowing more
promotion opportunities to roles other than conventional leadership
posts earlier on, perhaps along the lines of the model below:
Fig. 8: Possible career paths for teachers in
107. Clearly, such a simplistic model would require
refinement to make it, for example, appropriate to both primary
and secondary schools, and to take account of the range of other
roles in schools,
but it could equally bring a number of benefits, including giving
coherence to the existing and proposed schemes discussed above.
It could also provide a cadre of specialists in, for example,
behaviour, educational psychology, and special needs provision,
who could provide specialist advice and training across a number
of schools whilst continuing to teach in their 'home school'.
This might be a particularly valuable function in light of the
increasing number of schools outside local authority control,
and given cuts to local authority support teams.
Teachers on Paths 1 and 3 would be required, as part of their
promotions, to work with colleagues and other schools to improve
practice, thereby linking such a structure with Teaching School
alliances and other partnership working arrangements as well.
108. As our predecessor Committee recommended, such
a structure would bring together pay and conditions, along the
lines of promotion structures which exist in other public, private
and voluntary spheres. It would also, as Dr Mary Bousted said
any career structure must, be linked to CPD,
with teachers required to demonstrate mastery of their leadership,
pedagogical or specialist skills, positive impact on pupil progression,
and strong knowledge, before promotion. Indeed, it could link
well with an entitlement to CPD, with specialists able, for example,
to study for a SENCO qualification during their allotted hours.
(To move between pathways, teachers would need to provide evidence
of CPD relevant to the new pathway, especially to gain promotion.)
Such a solution might aid recruitment of top graduates as well
who, as we saw in Chapter 3, can view teaching as a profession
"with poor career prospects and promotion opportunities".
An overarching, national career structure for teachers could therefore
contribute to improving recruitment, increasing the number of
applicants for training places (as in countries like Finland and
Singapore) and thus ensuring a higher-quality teaching profession
and more choice over trainees for providers.
109. In light
of the evidence we have heard here and abroad, and building on
our predecessor Committee's work, we recommend that the Government
introduce a formal and flexible career structure for teachers,
with different pathways for those who wish to remain classroom
teachers or become teaching specialists, linked to pay and conditions
and professional development. We believe that the introduction
of such a structure would bring significant advantages to the
recruitment and retention of high-quality teachers, and bring
teaching into line with other graduate professions in this regard.
The case for a new College of
110. The proposals outlined above, in relation to
both CPD and career progression, would involve considerable change
for teachers and the wider system. They would also require an
organisation with the capability to administer and implement such
schemes, accredit CPD opportunities, and ensure equivalent standards
for promotion across the country.
111. Whilst the Government would be likely to have
an important role, as would the teaching profession itself, a
number of witnesses raised with us the potential for a new College
of Teaching which could, amongst other roles, fill some of the
functions noted above. Both the National Union of Teachers and
the Association of Teachers and Lecturers argued in favour of
a professional body for teachers, and the NASUWT for a "robust
regulatory body [which] enhances the professional status"
of teachers. Tony
Finn explained that the General Teaching Council in Scotland,
which he leads, is "in effect [...] a professional body",
and he outlined some of its key functions:
We accredit all courses of teacher education. We
set the entry standards for teaching at the point when someone
goes into a faculty of education. We also declare what is the
expectation of professional standards at different points of a
teacher's career, including standard for headship [...] We are
responsible for the teacher induction scheme in Scotland [...]
and, as of 2 April , we become a fully independent body,
which is quite separate from Government but which will be required
to work closely with all partners in a consensus body.
Mr Finn suggested that any similar body being set
up in England should not be "about representing teachers,
because there are other bodies that represent teachers and their
interests", but rather "about representing teaching
[,] promoting teaching and quality of teaching."
112. A College of Teachers already exists, and representatives
of it gave evidence to the Committee during this inquiry. The
College proposed a new 'Chartered Teacher' scheme (different from
the overarching framework recommended by our predecessor Committee,
and discussed above), which would be a "generic status at
a consistent standard", and "not tied to any particular
role or job description".
To achieve the status, teachers would "need to demonstrate
significant successful teaching experience, advanced knowledge
of education and their subject, and ability to lead the professional
learning and development of other teachers".
However, the College was unable to provide specific details of
support for such a scheme from named organisations outside its
own membership, 
and explained that it did not, as an organisation, have the reputation
and role of similar bodies in other professions.
113. The Schools Minister argued that a new College
of Teaching would need to "come from within the profession".
Mark Protherough, representing the Institute of Chartered Accountants,
explained that his organisation was "set up by members",
but that "the world has changed slightly since then in terms
of what Government does".
He therefore argued that "oversight by various aspects of
Government" was important in relation to a professional body
like his. The
evidence to our inquiry from the Institute of Chartered Accountants,
as well as other chartered institutions or professional bodies,
and the references in evidence to Royal Colleges in other fields
such as health, highlighted the fact that teaching is, perhaps,
unusual in having no equivalent organisation at the present time.
114. We acknowledge
and support the case for a new, member-driven College of Teaching,
independent from but working with Government, which could play
important roles, inter alia, in the accreditation
of CPD and teacher standards. We are not convinced that the model
of 'Chartered Teacher' status proposed by the existing College
of Teachers will bring about the changes required to teachers'
CPD and career progression opportunities, or that the existing
College has the public profile or capacity to implement such a
scheme. We recommend that the Government work with teachers and
others to develop proposals for a new College of Teaching, along
the lines of the Royal Colleges and Chartered Institutions in
Performance management and teacher
115. The terms of reference for our inquiry covered
teachers' performance management in relation to the recruitment,
training and retention of outstanding practitioners. They also
asked for views on the new Teacher Standards. A review of the
standards, led by headteacher Sally Coates, recommended in July
2011 "that a single set of standards should replace the existing
QTS and Core standards",
which aim to "provide a clear framework within which those
users can exercise their professional judgement as relevant to
context, roles and responsibilities" rather than to "prescribe
in detail what 'good' or 'outstanding' teaching should look like"
or "to attempt to specify gradual increments in the expectations
for how a teacher should be performing year on year".
116. From some witnesses, we heard support for the
new 'Master Teacher' proposal, which we have discussed above.
With regards to the simplification of the new standards, the Association
of School and College Leaders said there was "a danger in
a document that specifies only the minimum" as it "may
have the perverse effect of lowering teacher aspiration, ambition
However, few other written submissions debated the new standards
in depth, and one university training provider said that "the
fact that the standards are now shorter than those used up to
2011 will be welcomed by most members of the teaching profession".
117. The ASCL, along with the other unions which
gave oral evidence, explained current procedures for performance
Government has announced that it will enable the dismissal of
poor teachers to happen faster, and make it easier for schools
"to manage their teachers and help ensure they are performing
to the best of their abilities".
The Education Act 2011 confirmed the closure of the General Teaching
Council for England, which currently registers and regulates teachers;
several of its key functions will be taken over by the new Teaching
Agency, including responsibility for awarding QTS, regulating
the profession, and hearing appeals against failure to complete
is in direct contrast to arrangements north of the border, where
the General Teaching Council for Scotland gained further independence
on 2 April 2012, becoming the "world's first independent
self-regulating professional body for teaching".
118. We support
the Government's desire to reduce bureaucratic burdens on teachers
and school leaders, and therefore welcome the simplification of
the Teacher Standards. Following our call for a radical improvement
in career opportunities for teachers, we would expect the Government
to update the Standards when implementing a new and better career
119. We heard evidence that some governing bodies
do not currently receive sufficient performance management information
to hold the head and staff fully to account. We
encourage school governors to be rigorous in their scrutiny of
performance management in schools, and recommend that the Department
for Education, with Ofsted, provide additional information to
governing bodies following inspections, aiding them better to
hold headteachers to account for performance management arrangements.
120. In this report, we are concerned with the performance
and celebration of the best teachers. In Singapore, we
learnt that, although teachers' starting salaries are broadly
in line with those in the UK, the award of bonuses to high-performing
teachers is both an incentive and a positive aid in recruitment.
Sir Peter Lampl drew our attention to practice in Florida, stating
that "pay is now based on teacher performance so that salary
and increases are based on how good a teacher you are".
There is currently a much weaker link between pay and performance
in the UK.
121. There are, currently, huge differences in teacher
performance in the UK; no longer should the weakest teachers be
able to hide behind a rigid and unfair pay structure. We believe
that performance management systems should support and reward
the strongest teachers, as well as make no excuses (or, worse,
incentives to remain) for the weaker. Given the profound positive
and negative impacts which teachers have on pupil performance,
as demonstrated earlier in our report, we are concerned that the
pay system continues to reward low-performers at the same levels
as their more successful peers. We
strongly recommend that the Department for Education seek to quantify,
in a UK context, what scale of variation in teacher value-added
equates to in terms of children's later prospects. We further
recommend that the Department develop proposals (based on consultation
and a close study of systems abroad) for a pay system which rewards
those teachers who add the greatest value to pupil performance.
We acknowledge the potential political and practical difficulties
in introducing such a system, but the comparative impact of an
outstanding teacher is so great that we believe such difficulties
must be overcome.
141 Ev 134 Back
DfE, A profile of teachers in England from the 2010 School
Workforce Census (DfE Research Report 151, September 2011),
p. 81 Back
Ev 161 Back
Q 179 Back
Smithers, A., and Robinson, P., Teacher Turnover, Wastage and
Movements between Schools (University of Buckingham / DfES
Research Report 640, 2005), p. 29 Back
Teach First states that "90% stay for a minimum of two years,
over 50% stay longer and 67% of those placed since 2003 remain
actively engaged with addressing educational disadvantage through
Teach First's ambassador community" (http://www.teachfirst.org.uk/AboutUs/).
In additional evidence submitted to the inquiry (Ev 299), Teach
First notes that its retention rates are increasing over time. Back
Good Teacher Training Guide 2011,p. 27 Back
Ev 299 Back
Ev 169 Back
Smithers, A., and Robinson, P., Factors Affecting Teachers'
Decisions to Leave the Profession (University of Liverpool
/ DfES Research Report 430, 2003), p. Iii. Back
Smithers and Robinson 2005, p. iii Back
Ibid., p. v Back
NHS, Payback - return on investment for the NHS Graduate Scheme
(2011), p. 6 Back
Idem. Whilst teaching is not directly comparable to an
individual company, the figures do suggest that a fair level of
turnover is common in public sector graduate professions. Back
See Q 139 Back
See Q 296 Back
Q 602 (Steve Smith) Back
Q 603 (Trevor Burton) Back
See Bolton, P., Teachers' pay statistics (House of Commons
Library, SN/SG/1877, December 2008), p. 11 Back
Smithers and Robinson 2005, p. 52 Back
Idem. (professional development was cited as 'of great
importance' by 36%, and moving on promotion by 35%) Back
The importance and benefits of CPD appeared in vast swathes of
written evidence we received, but see, inter alia, Ev141,
Ev w18, Ev 294, and Ev w48. Back
Ev 199 Back
Ev 294. Christopher Chapman, in Improving Schools Through External
Intervention (Continuum, 2005), offers case studies where
professional development of existing staff had a strong impact
on school improvement. Back
Ev 199, citing 2007 Teachers' Workload Diary Survey from
the School Teachers Review Body. Back
Based on exchange rate at 27 March 2012 Back
See, for example, Margo et al 2008 Back
See, for example, Ev 178 and Ev 199 Back
See, inter alia, http://www.usethekey.org.uk/administration-and-management/structuring-school-day-year/changing-the-length-of-the-school-day-academy Back
Information supplied to the Committee by the Harris Federation Back
Ev 178 Back
See Q 312 (Alison Kitson) Back
Q 314 Back
Q 332 Back
Q 43, Education Committee pre-appointment hearing with Sir Michael
Wilshaw, Government's preferred candidate for HM Chief Inspector
Ofsted,1 November 2011; transcript available at http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmeduc/1607/11110101.htm Back
Q 623 Back
Ev w1 Back
Ev 193 Back
Q 303 Back
Q 46 Back
Q 322 (Professor Chris Robertson) Back
Q 467 Back
See http://education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/reviewofstandards/a00192172/review-of-teachers-standards-first-and-second-reports Back
Q 323 (Alison Kitson) Back
Q 619 (Trevor Burton) Back
Letter from the Secretary of State for Education to Sally Coates,
12 December 2011, available at http://media.education.gov.uk/assets/files/pdf/l/letter%20from%20michael%20gove%20to%20sally%20coates%20%20%2012%20december%202011.pdf Back
Training of Teachers, pp. 52-53 Back
That said, roles such as the SENCO could fit within the Path 3,
and there is no reason why a Master Teacher or Senior Specialist
should not act as a deputy or assistant head in a smaller school. Back
In April 2012, the Secretary of State noted that "more than
50% of secondary schools are either full academies or en route
to converting to academy status" (HC Deb 16 April 2012, col.
9). Although not directly related to accountability, the proposed
'specialist' pathway might also have potential benefits in light
of Sir Michael Wilshaw's call for an "intermediary layer
of monitoring" between Whitehall and schools. See Q 15, and
more generally qq. 6-17 (Sir Michael Wilshaw), evidence before
the Education Committee, 29 February 2012; see also Sir Michael's
speech 'Good schools for all-an impossible dream?', 28 November
2011, available at http://www.arkschools.org/media/111129%20MW%20%20Speech%204pm%20with%20logo%20FINAL.pdf. Back
Q 303 Back
Ev 151 Back
Q 226 (Christine Blower, Dr Mary Bousted, and Chris Keates) Back
Q 454 Back
Q 450 Back
Q 455 Back
Ev 196 Back
See, especially, qq. 413 - 420 (Professor Derek Bell and Dr Raphael
Q 398 (Dr Raphael Wilkins) Back
Q 743 (Nick Gibb MP) Back
Q 394 Back
Q 395 Back
Our inquiry took oral and written evidence from three chartered
institutions -the Institute of Chartered Accountants, the Royal
Institution of Chartered Surveyors, and the Chartered Institute
of Personnel and Development. A transcript of this, and other
oral evidence, can be found in Volume II of this report. Back
First Report of the Independent Review of Teachers' Standards
- QTS and Core Standards (July 2011), p. 6 Back
Ibid., p. 7 Back
Ev 190 Back
Ev 141 Back
See Qq 286-295 Back
See the Singapore Ministry of Education website at http://moe.gov.sg/careers/teach/career-info/salary/geo2/,
which confirms that: "Trained teachers are also eligible
for consideration for the Performance Bonus. The Performance Bonus
is an additional bonus awarded in March each year for the work
done during January to December of the year before." Back
Q 156 Back