Memorandum submitted by the Training and
Development Agency for Schools
Since 2004, the TDA has invested significantly
in support and challenge for the initial teacher training (ITT)
sector to ensure that all programmes include high quality training
in behaviour. Alongside this there has been a focus on e-safety
and how to deal with cyber-bullying and homophobia. Classroom
training to manage the behaviour of children and young people
is an integral element of every ITT programme. Training providers
must design and deliver their training programmes to enable all
trainee teachers to meet a set of rigorous standards for qualified
teacher status (QTS). These include standards relating specifically
to discipline, the management of children and young people, and
the organisation of the classroom. The standards were subject
to a substantial process of review between 2005 / 7, and resulted
in a coherent framework of standards for initial teacher training
and for teachers at every stage of their careers. The standards
on behaviour were a significant focus of the consultation and
2 THE PROFESSIONAL
In 2007 the revised standards for teachers were
introduced. The revised framework for teachers sets out a logical
progression of expectations from entry to the profession, via
the core standards for all serving teachers to threshold and advanced
and excellent teacher status.
The standards for the award of Qualified Teacher
The TDA provides extensive support for ITT providers
and their trainees and sets out the scope and expectations related
to each of the QTS standards in an easily accessible web-based
format. All of those to be awarded QTS must demonstrate that they
have met them in their practical classroom teaching.
Standard Q10: Have a knowledge and understanding
of a range of teaching, learning and behaviour management strategies
and know how to use and adapt them, including how to personalise
learning and provide opportunities for all learners to achieve
This standard requires trainees to demonstrate
a range of learning, teaching and behaviour management strategies,
and apply these to promote the kinds of behaviours that allow
teachers to teach, and pupils to learn without hindrance. Trainees
are expected to show that they can maintain secure discipline
in the classes that they teach.
Standard Q31: Establish a clear framework for
classroom discipline to manage learners' behaviour constructively
and promote their self-control and independence.
This standard requires trainees to demonstrate
that they know about and can use a range of strategies that promote
positive attitudes to learning. Trainees are expected to demonstrate
that they can:
ensure that pupils know the boundaries
of acceptable behaviour and understand the consequences of their
minimise the impact of the negative behaviours
of some pupils on teaching, and on the learning of others.
Standard Q2: Demonstrate the positive values,
attitudes and behaviour they expect from children and young people.
Trainee teachers are expected to understand
and demonstrate the values and attitudes that they want pupils
to develop. Such values will include respect for other people
and social responsibility. Trainee teachers are expected to demonstrate
that they can:
establish high expectations for pupils'
behaviour, and resolve conflicts inside and outside the classroom,
implement the school behaviour policies,
for example on equality, discipline, bullying and harassment.
Standard Q18: Understand how children and young
people develop and that the progress and well-being of learners
are affected by a range of developmental, social, religious, ethnic,
cultural and linguistic influences.
TDA guidance on this standard makes clear that
those who might be at risk depend on teachers, among others, to
monitor and manage their learning, and provide them with the support
that they need. This standard gives trainees a focus for developing
skills in tackling bullying and social exclusion in the classroom.
Standard Q3 (a): Be aware of the professional
duties of teachers and the statutory frameworks within which they
Standard Q3 (b): Be aware of the policies and
practices of the workplace and share in collective responsibility
for their implementation
Trainee teachers are expected to demonstrate
that they know the statutory framework in which they work including
in relation to their responsibilities to maintain discipline,
and the powers that they have to achieve this. Additionally, they
are expected know and implement the range of policies that support
school practice including in relation to bullying, racial harassment,
The QTS standards and accompanying extensive
guidance can be accessed at www.tda.gov.uk/qts.
3 RESOURCES TO
Since 2005 the TDA has commissioned practical
resources to support providers in improving the quality of teacher
The teacher training resource bank (TTRB)
provides access to a range of relevant resources to support trainee
teachers with guidance on behaviour management. The TTRB
can be accessed at www.ttrb.ac.uk. The TTRB offers a direct link
to other relevant resources including online Teachers TV video
material and the National Strategies resources.
The Behaviour4Learning website at www.behaviour4learning.ac.uk,
features high quality resources that enable trainers and trainees
to engage with the principles of "behaviour for learning".
This in turn supports improvements in the management of classroom
behaviour, and the raising of achievement. Evaluation evidence
shows that trainees exploit the website to inform their writing
of assignments on behaviour and to find ideas to use in teaching.
The Multiverse website (www.multiverse.ac.uk)
contains relevant and practical resources for teacher trainers
and trainees, addressing the educational achievement of pupils
from diverse backgrounds.
4 OTHER ELEMENTS
Special Educational Needs (SEN)
There is a strong link between SEN and effective
behaviour management. It is recognised that persistent low-level
disruption often arises when pupils cannot engage with the lesson.
The TDA works with providers to embed SEN resources into ITT to
ensure that trainees acquire strong skills in meeting the needs
of pupils with the commonly encountered forms of SEN and know
when to draw on the specialist support of the SENCO as appropriate.
The TDA is also working to provide specialist dyslexia training
to build capacity within the schools system to meet the needs
of pupils who might otherwise become disaffected.
Early reading and literacy
There are also clear links between behaviour
and literacy. Early intervention to improve literacy ensures that
pupils are more likely to be engaged with their learning. For
primary trainees, their preparation to teach literacy, including
reading, is a crucial element of their training and a key way
of narrowing the attainment gap. Following the publication of
the report of the Independent Review of the Teaching of Early
Reading in March 2006, the TDA has worked closely with the National
Strategies to provide a robust programme of challenge and support
to the sector to improve the quality of the initial preparation
of primary teachers to teach reading using an approach based on
5 HOW BEHAVIOUR
i) Initial teacher training
University led ITT:
The programme will include sessions on effective
classroom control strategies. Trainees will also learn about the
statutory responsibilities of teachers and specific aspects of
behaviour such as how to identify and deal with bullying. They
will learn how to plan interesting lessons that will engage pupils
positively and so minimise poor behaviour in the first place.
All trainees on University-led programmes of ITT spend a considerable
part of their programme in practical teaching experience in at
least two schools. They are based in schools for 24 weeks on a
PGCE secondary programme and 18 weeks for primary. For the undergraduate
programme the time based in schools for the equivalent of 36 weeks
or one full year of the programme. During this time they behave
as a member of the school team and are expected to show that they
can operate the school's behaviour policy effectively in their
own teaching. At the start of the school-based experience, trainees
will have the opportunity to participate in school-based sessions
setting out the school's expectations on behaviour and the policies
which they must adopt. Each trainee has a mentor who gives written
feed -back on every lesson observation giving emphasis to behaviour
management and setting targets for improvement.
Employment based ITT:
Trainees are employees of the school and are
based there typically for a full school year. Within this time
sixty days of the programme devoted to training. Employment based
trainees are expected to operate the school policy on behaviour
and discipline. Behaviour training is seen by trainees as a particular
strength of school based ITT. Part of the reason for this high
level of satisfaction is that trainees typically progress to employment
in the schools in which they are trained.
All trainees recommended for the award of QTS
must demonstrate in practice that they have met the standards
in relation to behaviour management.
In the first full year of teaching newly qualified
teachers (NQTs) develop their classroom practice by demonstrating
that they have consolidated their skills in managing behaviour.
They are supported in this by an induction tutor who will regularly
observe and give feedback on their classroom management.
6 EVIDENCE OF
Ofsted inspection evidence indicates that providers
are preparing trainees well to meet the standards at a high level.
The 2006/07 Annual Report of her Majesty's Chief Inspector noted
that trainees "who successfully complete primary and secondary
teacher training programmes are competent in managing the behaviour
of the classes that they teach because the training programmes
equip them well with practical strategies."
In addition the TDA carries out an annual survey
of NQTs in the spring term following the year in which they complete
their training, probing their views on the effectiveness of their
training. Typically over 12,000 respond each year, giving us a
robust evidence base. The data show that there has been steady
progress over time in response to the question: "How well
did your training prepare you to establish and maintain a good
standard of behaviour in the classroom?"
|Primary NQTs responding: "Very good / Good"
||Secondary NQTs Responding: "Very good / Good"
Overall 94% of NQTs surveyed in 2010 stated that their preparation
in this vital area was satisfactory or better.
The TDA uses data from the NQT survey and Ofsted inspections
to work with providers rated as "poor" or "satisfactory"
to develop improvement plans in order to bring about system wide
quality improvement. We are currently reviewing the NQT data on
behaviour at provider level in order to identify those who significantly
above or below the sector average in the preparing new teachers
to manage behaviour and maintain discipline in the classroom.
7 CURRENT TDA ACTIVITY:
We continue to emphasise the importance of effective training
in behaviour and discipline in raising the status of the teaching
profession and in meeting the government's objective of narrowing
the attainment gap.
To this end, we are currently:
(i) Reviewing the NQT survey data in order to identify the
most effective providers and develop case studies to be used to
exemplify best practice and to improve the performance of weaker
(ii) Working with Ofsted to ensure that training in behaviour
is given priority in the review of the framework of inspection
(iii) Reviewing our advice to ITT providers ensuring it clearly
and consistently represents what is known about effective practice
nationally and internationally.
(iv) Working with the Department for Education to develop
new routes to QTS such as "Troops into Teaching" to
bring fresh skills into the classroom, from mature entrants who
may have significant skills in motivating and managing the work
of young people.