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3 Feb 2010 : Column 414

As well as political reforms, development and counter-radicalisation in Yemen should be our Government's main focus. Yemen has dwindling oil reserves. It has never had oil reserves like those of Saudi Arabia, for example, and the reserves that it had are dwindling. It has little water and has been deprived of international aid for decades, even after it was severely affected by the repercussions of the first Gulf war.

America recently pledged £62 million to Yemen, which is up from zero, its previous support. Focusing aid on developing educational institutions, infrastructure, employment and export diversification is vital. Counter-radicalisation is intrinsically connected to development and securing long-term jobs. Some 35 per cent. of Yemenis live below the poverty line, 65 per cent. are under 25, and 18 per cent. under 18. Therefore a large, idle and desperate population is being increasingly wooed by al-Qaeda and become increasingly vulnerable to its activities.

Counter-radicalisation seizes terrorism at the root. The current growth of terrorist networks must be dealt with through immediate action by establishing an effective system of counter-terrorism. This should avoid imposing a military presence or giving such an impression to the Yemenis, especially in light of their previous hostility to American involvement in the region. Providing weapons, equipment and intelligence assistance is the most effective way in which Yemen can combat terrorists within its borders.

For example, Yemen needs help to develop an effective system of verification. Owing to a lack of helicopters, Yemeni security forces must rely on reports of nearby tribal leaders to confirm those dead or wounded after attacks on terrorist hideouts in the mountains. It is important that if al-Qaeda leaders are killed or prevented from engaging in action, that is independently verified.

Therefore the creation and development of an efficient system of intelligence and information exchange within the Yemeni security services is extremely important. The US has 550 suspects on the "most wanted" list, but little is known of their whereabouts and the role in al-Qaeda of each of these suspects. Although this is a difficult starting point, building a system of counter-terrorism for the Yemeni security services will help enormously. That is why it is vital that we have dialogue. Without dialogue, we have real problems.

We must also keep an eye on the areas beyond Yemen's borders which affect its internal instability through terrorist infiltration. The development of a lawless zone stretching from northern Kenya, Somalia, Eritrea and the Gulf of Aden to Saudi Arabia, is a real fear. We know that extremist groups are already involved in activities in the horn of Africa. We know of the piracy that occurs between Somalia and Yemen. It is extremely important that we provide effective resources for the Yemeni Government to deal with that.

Some of the security issues can be addressed immediately. Sadly, Yemenia Airways, the national airline of Yemen, has had its flights between London and Yemen cancelled since 20 January. I raised the matter with the Prime Minister today. I understand perfectly the concerns of the Department for Transport. It wants to make sure that when people board flights on Yemenia or from other countries, they are properly searched and scanned before they arrive in the United Kingdom. We heard on Tuesday that at Manchester airport and Heathrow,
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body scanners are to be rolled out. When we go through those airports, Members of the House and everyone else will have to go through a full body scanner. If that is the case for this country, surely we can give Yemen one body scanner, so that it can be used at Sana'a airport. The Foreign Secretary talked about a comprehensive approach, but it is important that we look at practical help. We should not wait for reports to be considered by Cabinet Committees; we should act immediately to help those in Yemen who are our friends.

We also need to look at what is happening within our borders. The President and the Government of Yemen have complained on numerous occasions about the existence on British soil of radio stations that go out of their way to make anti-Yemeni and anti-Government statements calling for the overthrow of the democratically elected Government in Yemen. We must do as much as we can to ensure that our territory-our land-is not used for those purposes.

Another concern is the British hostages who are held in Yemen. Discussions are ongoing, and I thank the Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the hon. Member for Bury, South, who flew to Yemen yesterday, for inviting me and other members of the all-party group on Yemen to join him on that mission. That was a wonderful gesture in view of the group's work. Unfortunately, owing to other duties, I could not go with him, but he does not need me to accompany him, because he will do a very good job himself.

We want to ensure that there are practical steps, however, so here is my shopping list, which I have passed on to the Under-Secretary of State for International Development, so that he knows what I am shopping for in today's debate. There should be funding for development and the security services. Let us not wait any longer; let us deliver it now. We are doing our bit, but what about the other countries that pledged £3 billion four years ago? There should also be technical assistance, through the provision of weapons and training, so that we can engage the Yemeni forces and they can stop their country falling into the hands of those who wish to destroy it. There should be more effective intelligence. We have the best intelligence services in the world, so why do we not work with them to provide that help? We should continue to do what the Minister is doing so effectively: providing development aid. What he is doing will benefit people not so much in the short term, although there are immediate benefits, but in the long term. Let us try to get Yemen admitted to the Gulf Co-operation Council. Let us see whether it can be admitted to the Commonwealth, which it is entitled to join, because Aden was a British colony.

In addition, I put to the Prime Minister an idea, which I hope he will take up, to create a taskforce for Yemen, because he himself knows the importance of the matter. The taskforce should include some parliamentarians, British business men, officials from the Foreign and Commonwealth office and others-anybody who will try to help us keep Yemen stable. It would go hand in hand with the measures that Britain has already undertaken. I do not call for the appointment of an envoy, because that would take too long and what would they do? We have some wonderful Foreign Office Ministers who can do that job, but let us support them by creating a taskforce for Yemen. Let us not leave the situation as it is; let us do something positive.

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The Government of Yemen are more than willing to co-operate to combat the ills that face their country, and to deal with counter-terrorism. Economic growth, elite compliance and state stability will be welcomed, too, so long as they arrive with a good level of non-interference in Yemen's socio-cultural issues and institutional reform. To quote Dr. al-Kurbi, one of the longest-serving Foreign Ministers in the Gulf, who qualified as a doctor in our country-at Edinburgh university-and therefore knows and has great respect of our country:

We should assist in tackling those challenges, resolving those problems and ensuring that people's expectations are not in vain. Now that the media frenzy is over, now that the television camera crews have packed their bags and left the Yemen conference and now that the international spotlight has grown a little dimmer, I urge the Minister, despite the huge amount of issues facing Foreign Office and Department for International Development Ministers, to keep our focus on Yemen. We should help them to help themselves. That would be a truly great legacy for this Government as far as foreign policy is concerned-not dealing with this after the event but preventing Yemen from falling into the same kind of disrepair and disillusionment as Afghanistan or Iraq. Because of the respect that Yemenis have for our country, this whole goal-the future of this country-is also in our hands.

7.35 pm

The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for International Development (Mr. Michael Foster): I congratulate my right hon. Friend the Member for Leicester, East (Keith Vaz) on securing this debate and on giving the House an opportunity to have this discussion, and I thank him for his kind words. I know that he has a genuine and long-standing interest in the future of Yemen and its people. That is an interest that the Government share, reaffirmed following my visit to the country last year.

As my right hon. Friend pointed out, Yemen is a country that is beset by challenges. Fresh water resources are rapidly running out, its population is set to double within the next 20 years, and unemployment already stands at 35 per cent. At the same time, governance is weak, and there is ongoing conflict and political tension. In short, we are talking about a country that has been poor, is poor, and without action will be poor for the foreseeable future. Its development and humanitarian needs are as significant as they are clear to everyone.

That is why the Department for International Development has long recognised Yemen to be a country desperately in need of international aid and support. We have stepped up our commitment considerably over the past five years; indeed, in 2007 we signed a 10-year development partnership agreement with the country, which was a signal of our intent. As the Foreign Secretary noted in his statement to the House on 5 January, a renewed UK country strategy for Yemen was developed in September 2009. That set out our priorities and, crucially, made it clear that we are ready to offer our long-term support. The document and the rationale behind it met with agreement from right across this House.

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Since then, of course, Yemen has acquired a much higher profile internationally, with December's attempted bombing making headlines around the world. My right hon. Friend will be aware of the potential role of al-Qaeda and the related terrorist activity in Yemen, which are matters of grave concern to the UK Government. However, let me be clear. Our view, and that of many Foreign Ministers who gathered in London last week, is that such activity is a symptom, albeit a corrosive one, of wider problems within Yemen. To treat that symptom, we need to treat the cause, and that is poverty: poverty of resource, poverty of means, and poverty of opportunity.

That is why in recent weeks we have moved quickly to see what we could do to encourage the international community in its support for Yemen. The Foreign Ministers' meeting in London last week, convened by the Prime Minister and attended by Yemeni Prime Minister Mujawar, had three main objectives: first, to forge an international consensus about the nature of the challenges that face Yemen; secondly, to build an impetus behind the economic and governance reform agenda; and thirdly, to improve the way that we co-ordinate international aid that goes to Yemen.

In his statement to the House earlier this week, the Foreign Secretary outlined what had been agreed at that meeting. I can reiterate today that everybody present agreed that the main responsibility for tackling Yemen's problems lies with Yemen itself. However, the international community is ready to stand by Yemen and to offer its support, both in addressing the challenges presented by al-Qaeda, including through enforcing all relevant United Nations sanctions, and in helping the Government to tackle the political, social, governance and economic challenges that they face.

The agenda is both short term and long term. Short-term support will be provided through a new Friends of Yemen Group, which will act as a kind of critical friend, ready to challenge, question and advise the Yemeni Government. This will be particularly important as Yemen faces up to some tough decisions on how and where it should focus its energies. The first meeting of that group will take place in the Gulf in late March, and it will discuss how Yemen can best deliver much-needed economic and governance reforms and tackle the challenges and instability that it faces.

During the London meeting, the Yemeni Government and the International Monetary Fund reaffirmed their agreement to talks to establish an IMF programme for Yemen. That is extremely encouraging and should help Yemen identify ways to tackle some of the most immediate economic problems, including the burden placed on its budget by national fuel subsidies and the civil service wage bill. If that process is successful, it should encourage other donors to align their funding accordingly, potentially making funding streams more effective.

Keith Vaz: I thank my hon. Friend for what he has said so far, but I still cannot understand how, after the conference that we hosted at Lancaster house in November 2006-a wonderful decision by the Government, and we have always hosted such conferences-£3 billion was pledged but only 7 per cent. has been paid. What has happened to the other 93 per cent.? Who is not paying?

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Mr. Foster: I hope to come to that point, and indeed I turn now to the very subject of aid. The secretary-general of the Gulf Co-operation Council has called a meeting of donors to discuss the barriers to disbursing aid in Yemen. Securing progress by the Government of Yemen on key economic and government reforms is critical to that, as is the capacity of the Government to absorb funds. The GCC meeting is specifically intended to identify barriers to the disbursement of Gulf donor funds.

As my right hon. Friend acknowledged, disbursement has been limited ever since the 2006 London consultative group meeting, at which some $5 billion of support was pledged. That money, together with funding from other donors, will help Yemen diversify its economy. That is particularly crucial given that its oil reserves, which represent some 90 per cent. of the country's export revenue, are expected to run out within the next 10 years.

In the short term, the Yemeni Government need support in delivering basic services and providing jobs for their people, and we can help on that. However, they themselves need to take the critical decisions that will reverse Yemen's trajectory by delivering services, stabilising the economy, tackling terrorist activity and resolving conflict. They need the political will to do that. I know that the challenge is immense, but it must be co-ordinated if we are to stand a chance of success.

Long-term support for Yemen is also needed to help it develop new markets, invest in its future and create job opportunities. However, economic growth will also depend in part on Yemen's ability to resolve conflict and strengthen its governance, including by tackling corruption. Conflict can disrupt internal trade and discourage investment. Indeed, the evidence that we have suggests that it can reduce a country's growth by more than 2 per cent.

We do not want Yemen to fail. Its problems are complex and will be addressed only through concerted and sustained effort on the part of the international community and, most importantly, on the part of Yemen itself.

Keith Vaz: Obviously my hon. Friend was not at the meeting with the Prime Minister, because I know he has his own engagements. Will he consider the idea of a taskforce on Yemen, which would deal not only with Government-to-Government contact but with people-to-people contact? There are many Yemenis in this country. As he knows, I am not a Yemeni-I am of Indian origin, although I was born in Yemen. However, there are many Yemenis in places such as Cardiff, the Foreign Secretary's constituency of South Shields and elsewhere. It will be helpful if we can provide something more than just Government-to-Government contact, especially as far as trade and industry are concerned.

Mr. Foster: I accept totally what my right hon. Friend says about the contacts in the UK and our good will towards Yemen. I will consider his suggestion and also offer him opportunities to raise it with others in the very near future.

Yemen has many friends beyond the UK, including the United States, the European Union and the GCC. Together with those partners, we stand ready to help
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Yemen and its people. Activity in recent weeks is testament to that. We need now to maintain that momentum so that reform can be achieved, aid unlocked and a future secured.

I repeat my thanks to my right hon. Friend for raising this important topic. We have plans in place to provide
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Members with a more detailed briefing on our work in Yemen, and I will ensure that he is notified of the time and date of that meeting.

Question put and agreed to.

7.44 pm

House adjourned.

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Deferred Divisions

EU Enlargement strategy

The House divided: Ayes 403, Noes 20.
Division No. 69]


Abbott, Ms Diane
Afriyie, Adam
Ainsworth, Mr. Peter
Alexander, Danny
Alexander, rh Mr. Douglas
Anderson, Mr. David
Anderson, Janet
Arbuthnot, rh Mr. James
Armstrong, rh Hilary
Atkins, Charlotte
Atkinson, Mr. Peter
Austin, Mr. Ian
Austin, John
Bacon, Mr. Richard
Bailey, Mr. Adrian
Bain, Mr. William
Baker, Norman
Baldry, Tony
Balls, rh Ed
Banks, Gordon
Barker, Gregory
Barlow, Ms Celia
Baron, Mr. John
Barrett, John
Barron, rh Mr. Kevin
Begg, Miss Anne
Beith, rh Sir Alan
Bell, Sir Stuart
Bellingham, Mr. Henry
Benn, rh Hilary
Benyon, Mr. Richard
Beresford, Sir Paul
Berry, Roger
Binley, Mr. Brian
Blackman, Liz
Blackman-Woods, Dr. Roberta
Blizzard, Mr. Bob
Blunkett, rh Mr. David
Blunt, Mr. Crispin
Bone, Mr. Peter
Borrow, Mr. David S.
Boswell, Mr. Tim
Bottomley, Peter
Brady, Mr. Graham
Brake, Tom
Brazier, Mr. Julian
Brokenshire, James
Brooke, Annette
Brown, Lyn
Brown, rh Mr. Nicholas
Brown, Mr. Russell
Browne, rh Des
Browne, Mr. Jeremy
Browning, Angela
Bryant, Chris
Burrowes, Mr. David
Burstow, Mr. Paul
Burt, Alistair
Burt, Lorely
Butler, Ms Dawn
Byers, rh Mr. Stephen
Cable, Dr. Vincent
Cameron, rh Mr. David
Campbell, Mr. Alan
Campbell, Mr. Ronnie
Carmichael, Mr. Alistair
Caton, Mr. Martin
Cawsey, Mr. Ian
Challen, Colin
Chapman, Ben
Clapham, Mr. Michael
Clappison, Mr. James
Clark, Greg
Clark, Ms Katy
Clarke, rh Mr. Charles
Clarke, rh Mr. Kenneth
Clarke, rh Mr. Tom
Clegg, rh Mr. Nick
Clifton-Brown, Mr. Geoffrey
Coaker, Mr. Vernon
Coffey, Ann
Connarty, Michael
Cook, Frank
Cooper, Rosie
Cooper, rh Yvette
Corbyn, Jeremy
Cormack, Sir Patrick
Crabb, Mr. Stephen
Crausby, Mr. David
Creagh, Mary
Cunningham, Mr. Jim
Cunningham, Tony
Curry, rh Mr. David
Darling, rh Mr. Alistair
Davey, Mr. Edward
David, Mr. Wayne
Davidson, Mr. Ian
Dean, Mrs. Janet
Denham, rh Mr. John
Dhanda, Mr. Parmjit
Dismore, Mr. Andrew
Djanogly, Mr. Jonathan
Dobbin, Jim
Dobson, rh Frank
Donohoe, Mr. Brian H.
Dorries, Nadine
Dowd, Jim
Duddridge, James
Duncan, Alan
Dunne, Mr. Philip
Efford, Clive
Engel, Natascha
Ennis, Jeff
Evennett, Mr. David

Fabricant, Michael
Fitzpatrick, Jim
Flint, rh Caroline
Flynn, Paul
Follett, Barbara
Foster, Mr. Don
Foster, Mr. Michael (Worcester)
Foster, Michael Jabez (Hastings and Rye)
Fox, Dr. Liam
Francis, Dr. Hywel
Francois, Mr. Mark
Fraser, Christopher
Gale, Mr. Roger
Gapes, Mike
Garnier, Mr. Edward
Gauke, Mr. David
Gerrard, Mr. Neil
Gibb, Mr. Nick
Gidley, Sandra
Gilroy, Linda
Goggins, rh Paul
Goldsworthy, Julia
Goodman, Helen
Goodman, Mr. Paul
Goodwill, Mr. Robert
Gray, Mr. James
Greening, Justine
Greenway, Mr. John
Grieve, Mr. Dominic
Griffith, Nia
Grogan, Mr. John
Hague, rh Mr. William
Hain, rh Mr. Peter
Hall, Patrick
Hammond, Mr. Philip
Hammond, Stephen
Hancock, Mr. Mike
Hanson, rh Mr. David
Harper, Mr. Mark
Harris, Mr. Tom
Havard, Mr. Dai
Hayes, Mr. John
Heald, Mr. Oliver
Healey, rh John
Heath, Mr. David
Hemming, John
Hendry, Charles
Hepburn, Mr. Stephen
Hermon, Lady
Hesford, Stephen
Heyes, David
Hill, rh Keith
Hodge, rh Margaret
Hodgson, Mrs. Sharon
Holloway, Mr. Adam
Holmes, Paul
Hoon, rh Mr. Geoffrey
Hope, Phil
Hopkins, Kelvin
Horam, Mr. John
Horwood, Martin
Hosie, Stewart
Howarth, David
Howarth, rh Mr. George
Howarth, Mr. Gerald
Howell, John
Hoyle, Mr. Lindsay
Hughes, rh Beverley
Hughes, Simon
Huhne, Chris
Humble, Mrs. Joan
Hunter, Mark
Hutton, rh Mr. John
Iddon, Dr. Brian
Illsley, Mr. Eric
Ingram, rh Mr. Adam
Irranca-Davies, Huw
Jack, rh Mr. Michael
Jackson, Mr. Stewart
James, Mrs. Siân C.
Jenkin, Mr. Bernard
Jenkins, Mr. Brian
Johnson, rh Alan
Johnson, Ms Diana R.
Jones, Mr. David
Jones, Helen
Jones, Mr. Kevan
Jones, Mr. Martyn
Jowell, rh Tessa
Joyce, Mr. Eric
Keeble, Ms Sally
Keeley, Barbara
Keen, Alan
Keen, Ann
Keetch, Mr. Paul
Kelly, rh Ruth
Kemp, Mr. Fraser
Key, Robert
Kidney, Mr. David
Kirkbride, Miss Julie
Knight, rh Jim
Kumar, Dr. Ashok
Ladyman, Dr. Stephen
Laing, Mrs. Eleanor
Lait, Mrs. Jacqui
Lamb, Norman
Lammy, rh Mr. David
Laxton, Mr. Bob
Lazarowicz, Mark
Lepper, David
Letwin, rh Mr. Oliver
Lewis, Dr. Julian
Liddell-Grainger, Mr. Ian
Linton, Martin
Lloyd, Tony
Llwyd, Mr. Elfyn
Loughton, Tim
Luff, Peter
Mackay, rh Mr. Andrew
MacNeil, Mr. Angus
Mactaggart, Fiona
Main, Anne
Malins, Mr. Humfrey
Mallaber, Judy
Mann, John
Marsden, Mr. Gordon
Mason, John
Mates, rh Mr. Michael
May, rh Mrs. Theresa
McAvoy, rh Mr. Thomas
McCabe, Steve
McCarthy-Fry, Sarah
McGovern, Mr. Jim
McGrady, Mr. Eddie
McGuire, rh Mrs. Anne
McIntosh, Miss Anne
McIsaac, Shona
McKechin, Ann
McLoughlin, rh Mr. Patrick
McNulty, rh Mr. Tony
Meale, Mr. Alan
Merron, Gillian

Michael, rh Alun
Milburn, rh Mr. Alan
Miliband, rh David
Miliband, rh Edward
Miller, Andrew
Miller, Mrs. Maria
Milton, Anne
Mitchell, Mr. Andrew
Moffatt, Laura
Moon, Mrs. Madeleine
Moore, Mr. Michael
Morden, Jessica
Morgan, Julie
Morley, rh Mr. Elliot
Moss, Mr. Malcolm
Mudie, Mr. George
Mulholland, Greg
Mundell, David
Munn, Meg
Murphy, rh Mr. Paul
Murrison, Dr. Andrew
Naysmith, Dr. Doug
Neill, Robert
Newmark, Mr. Brooks
O'Brien, Mr. Stephen
O'Hara, Mr. Edward
Olner, Mr. Bill
Öpik, Lembit
Osborne, Mr. George
Osborne, Sandra
Ottaway, Richard
Owen, Albert
Paterson, Mr. Owen
Pearson, Ian
Penning, Mike
Penrose, John
Pickles, Mr. Eric
Plaskitt, Mr. James
Pound, Stephen
Prentice, Bridget
Price, Adam
Prisk, Mr. Mark
Prosser, Gwyn
Pugh, Dr. John
Purchase, Mr. Ken
Randall, Mr. John
Raynsford, rh Mr. Nick
Reed, Mr. Jamie
Reid, Mr. Alan
Rennie, Willie
Riordan, Mrs. Linda
Robathan, Mr. Andrew
Robertson, Angus
Robertson, Hugh
Robertson, John
Robinson, Mr. Geoffrey
Rogerson, Dan
Rooney, Mr. Terry
Rosindell, Andrew
Roy, Mr. Frank
Roy, Lindsay
Ruane, Chris
Ruffley, Mr. David
Russell, Bob
Salter, Martin
Sanders, Mr. Adrian
Sarwar, Mr. Mohammad
Seabeck, Alison
Selous, Andrew
Shapps, Grant
Sharma, Mr. Virendra
Sheerman, Mr. Barry
Sheridan, Jim
Simmonds, Mark
Simon, Mr. Siôn
Simpson, Mr. Keith
Slaughter, Mr. Andy
Smith, rh Angela E. (Basildon)
Smith, Chloe
Smith, rh Jacqui
Smith, Sir Robert
Snelgrove, Anne
Soames, Mr. Nicholas
Southworth, Helen
Spellar, rh Mr. John
Spelman, Mrs. Caroline
Spicer, Sir Michael
Spring, Mr. Richard
Stanley, rh Sir John
Starkey, Dr. Phyllis
Stewart, Ian
Stoate, Dr. Howard
Straw, rh Mr. Jack
Streeter, Mr. Gary
Stuart, Ms Gisela
Stuart, Mr. Graham
Sutcliffe, Mr. Gerry
Swinson, Jo
Swire, Mr. Hugo
Syms, Mr. Robert
Tami, Mark
Tapsell, Sir Peter
Taylor, Ms Dari
Taylor, Mr. Ian
Timms, rh Mr. Stephen
Timpson, Mr. Edward
Tipping, Paddy
Todd, Mr. Mark
Touhig, rh Mr. Don
Tredinnick, David
Trickett, Jon
Truswell, Mr. Paul
Turner, Dr. Desmond
Turner, Mr. Neil
Tyrie, Mr. Andrew
Vaizey, Mr. Edward
Vara, Mr. Shailesh
Vaz, rh Keith
Walley, Joan
Waltho, Lynda
Waterson, Mr. Nigel
Watkinson, Angela
Watts, Mr. Dave
Webb, Steve
Weir, Mr. Mike
Whitehead, Dr. Alan
Wiggin, Bill
Willetts, Mr. David
Williams, rh Mr. Alan
Williams, Mrs. Betty
Williams, Hywel
Williams, Stephen
Willis, Mr. Phil
Willott, Jenny
Wills, rh Mr. Michael
Wilson, Phil
Wilson, Mr. Rob
Winnick, Mr. David
Winterton, rh Ms Rosie
Wishart, Pete
Wright, Mr. Anthony
Wright, David
Wright, Jeremy
Wright, Dr. Tony

Wyatt, Derek
Young, rh Sir George
Younger-Ross, Richard

Cash, Mr. William
Chope, Mr. Christopher
Davies, Mr. Dai
Davies, Philip
Donaldson, rh Mr. Jeffrey M.
Drew, Mr. David
Field, rh Mr. Frank
Hoey, Kate
Hollobone, Mr. Philip
Laws, Mr. David
McCrea, Dr. William
McDonnell, John
Pelling, Mr. Andrew
Simpson, David
Skinner, Mr. Dennis
Spink, Bob
Taylor, Dr. Richard
Walker, Mr. Charles
Winterton, Ann
Winterton, Sir Nicholas
Question accordingly agreed to.
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