Market Failure?: Can the traditional market survive? - Communities and Local Government Committee Contents

2  Background

6. We launched our inquiry to determine whether traditional markets are in decline and, if so, whether the implications are sufficiently important to warrant greater consideration by local authorities and Government.

7. We have come to appreciate the complex and diverse nature of the traditional retail markets sector. The challenges faced by large metropolitan markets, for example, are not necessarily the same as those faced by small markets or the newer farmers' markets. This has implications for the scope of our inquiry, and our analysis of the traditional retail market sector today and the outlook for its future.

8. We caution against a 'one size fits all' approach and simple generalisations about the sector. The evidence we have gathered has, though, given us a wider understanding of the manifold benefits of a thriving market, including economic, social, regeneration, health and environmental benefits. They matter both locally and, as we argue in more detail later in this Report, for the contribution they can make to wider national objectives. We also now better appreciate the increasingly difficult challenges many markets face, and the actions local authorities and Government can take to support and develop the different types of today's traditional retail markets.

Scope of the inquiry

9. Our original terms of reference explained that we intended to consider covered and uncovered markets, including specialist markets (e.g. farmers' markets) serving local people in English urban and rural towns and cities. Accordingly, as summarised by market consultant Michael Felton, our inquiry encompasses "municipal markets both 'Indoors' and 'Outdoors' […] operated by local authorities and […] based on custom; royal charter; local acts of parliament passed in the nineteenth century or under the Food Act 1984", and markets run by the private sector which "principally operate in the 'Outdoors' arena with the operators being individuals (ex traders and entrepreneurs); charter holders; quoted and unquoted companies. The bulk of the private sector sites are held on licence or short lease from local authorities who own the car parks; the central squares; the pavements or streets."[2]

10. In addition to the important ownership and indoor/outdoor distinctions, we also recognize that the size and location of a market can be very significant. We included in our remit both large markets and smaller street markets in metropolitan town centres and small markets in rural towns, assessing the different types of challenge they face. For a number of our witnesses, such as Michael Felton[3], it is the smaller markets—defined as 50 stalls or less—which are most at risk. Equally though, some of the smaller markets, such as Ludlow and Lowestoft, which were the subject of a research paper for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation by our specialist adviser Professor Sophie Watson,[4] provide intimate public spaces where traders and shoppers know each other and work well for the community.

11. Finally, we cover specialist markets, focusing particularly on 'farmers' markets', the market success story of the last ten years. Farmers' markets are defined by the National Farmers' Retail and Markets Association (FARMA) by the following criteria:

a) stallholders should only sell what they produce/make

b) stallholders should be drawn from the locality (typically 30 miles)

c) the principal stallholder should be involved in production

d) there is information at each stall and within the market about the produce sold.[5]

Only a minority of farmers' markets are FARMA registered. FARMA believes that "there are currently around 800 farmers' or producers' markets in the UK. Of these we estimate that 600 are regular (Mainly monthly farmers' markets, of which 250 are FARMA Certified)."[6] A number of non-FARMA registered farmers' markets, therefore, will depart quite substantively from the FARMA criteria, for instance by selling food products from much further afield. Nevertheless, they remain sufficiently distinct from the older traditional retail markets to be considered separately, not least because of issues for local authorities emerging from the evidence we have received relating to the extent to which farmers' markets can integrate with traditional retail markets, and whether the terms of Royal Charters that serve to prevent competing markets from being established within six and two-thirds miles of the Chartered market unfairly discriminate against occasional farmers' markets.

12. As we learnt more about the varied nature of the markets listed above, it became clear to us that, in order to produce a focused report, we needed to stick to our original remit. As set out in our published terms of reference, therefore, we have not considered car-boot sales or, except where they impact on the viability of retail markets, markets whose customers are predominantly other professional traders (i.e. wholesale markets). We have also decided that issues relating to pedlars are outside the scope of this inquiry, though we recognize the need for proportionate regulation to prevent unfair competition for markets. Finally, whilst we acknowledge the importance of continued vigilance, regulation and where appropriate, prosecution, in relation to stolen and counterfeit goods sold at markets, not least to protect and enhance the reputation of markets, this is also not an area that we have considered in any great detail.

Traditional retail markets today


13. The starting point of any inquiry into traditional retail markets has to be an assessment of the number of markets operating today and their contribution to the economy. However, a number of our witnesses acknowledged that a paucity of comprehensive and up-to-date statistics hindered an accurate assessment of the state of the traditional retail sector today. For example, in his written evidence, George Nicholson, Secretary for the National Retail Planning Forum, and until recently Chairman of the Trustees of London Borough Market, observed that "it had not been possible until NABMA [National Association of British Market Authorities] undertook a survey of Markets in 2005, to even start any serious discussion on the scale or health of the UK markets sector. Data is still not collected on a regular and consistent basis, making analysis, policy development and growth planning difficult."[7]

14. This echoes a general consensus amongst those who gave evidence, including the Government, that the 2005 NABMA study[8], also referred to as the Rhodes report after its author Nick Rhodes,[9] is the correct starting point for assessing the state of traditional retail markets today. The Rhodes report compiled a database of markets and then sent each a questionnaire to gain additional information. The report covered public and private operated retail markets across the UK, including, where possible, farmers' markets, other speciality markets and, unlike our inquiry, car boot sales. As with our inquiry, the survey excluded wholesale and livestock markets. In brief, the key findings were:

Over 1,150 retail markets operated in the UK

Over 150,000 stalls available each week

The average stall occupancy rates are at 75% and falling

Over 46,000 market traders work across the UK

The market industry offers employment to more than 96,000 people

Over 435 million shopping visits per year

Over £1.1 billion spent at market stalls each year in the UK.[10]

The Rhodes report concluded that "general markets across the UK, the core of most market operators' business, are in decline. Declining number of shoppers, decreasing stall occupancy rates, and a perceived decline in the markets' turnover provides clear signals that they need to be revitalised." It noted though that "against this backdrop, there is a clear growth in speciality markets, e.g. markets held on a periodic basis that provide added shopper appeal".[11] FARMA assessed that around £250 million is spent at farmers' markets stalls per year.[12]

15. In its written evidence, the Retail Markets Alliance, which brings together the four major organisations involved in the markets industry in the UK (NABMA, FARMA, the National Market Traders' Federation (NMTF) and The Association of Town Centre Management (ATCM)), commented on the Rhodes reports' findings that "it is a mixed and complex picture. It is clear that some market and market types are in decline, but equally many markets are thriving." They also observed that its key conclusion was supported by other, more recent evidence:

The Rhodes Study concluded that General Markets across the UK, the core of most market operators' business, are in decline. It also concluded that there had been a significant growth in farmers' and other specialist markets. This view is supported by the Review of London Markets 2008, commissioned by the London Assembly, which stated that 'There are around 180 retail markets in London today—63 more than ten years ago and more than twice as many as had previously been thought.' It also noted that 'A significant number of borough-managed street markets have shrunk or closed down in the past ten years', and concluded that 'The vast majority of new retail markets are privately run farmers' or specialist markets: at least 47 […] have been established across London in the last ten years. This sector is thriving and undergoing a popularity surge across the country'.[13]

In his evidence, Michael Felton added that the Rhodes Study figure of 1,150 retail markets operating in the UK contrasted with 1,500 trading "twelve or more years ago."[14]


16. Given, however, that the Rhodes report was published some four years ago, and that its conclusions were based on a credible but still far from comprehensive 40% response rate and based on some extrapolation, we sought to ascertain the extent to which events had moved on since it was published. Graham Wilson, Chief Executive of NABMA, told us that:

[…] in terms of the overall position, I suspect that with regard to traditional retail markets the decline that was evidenced in that first survey is still continuing […] There is clear evidence that was highlighted in the research of growth of other markets, particularly specialist and farmers' markets. […] research, which is in the final draft stage, suggests that the total number of markets that are currently operating throughout the country is probably around the 2,500 to 3,000 figure. If you take into account the fact that the first survey was directed towards the traditional retail markets, we know there are something of the order of 800 farmers' markets which are added into the equation, and then there are a number of, now, regular specialist and car boot sales. So we feel that the overall figure that has now been identified is perhaps a more realistic, overall assessment. […] The [overall] picture is one of some encouragement, although in terms of the traditional street markets there are some worrying signs, particularly in respect of smaller markets.[15]

As well as updating the number of markets, Graham Wilson also offered a provisional update of the customer spend at market stalls per year, reporting that "research that the NMTF have currently undertaken and are shortly to complete suggests that the figure, looking at markets as a whole, is probably nearer £3 billion."[16]

17. Professor Sophie Watson took issue with the implication that all general markets are in decline, observing that:

I do not think it is quite as straightforward as the picture that is coming across where farmers' markets, specialist markets, are seen to be on the increase and the old, traditional markets are in decline. It is not really like that. Across the country there are many markets that are still very viable that have been there for a long time, the kind of markets particularly in country towns, for example, which still pretty much serve the community. If you take a classic country town where it has a market, say, on one or two days a week you will find people mostly go to the market, more or less everyone. The picture becomes much more varied when you start looking at large metropolitan areas.[17]

Other evidence added weight to this assertion that some at least of the older general markets are thriving. Tim Hurst, Assistant Director, Commercial and Support Services, City of Bradford Metropolitan Council, told us that "I believe the local markets are holding their own"[18], whilst Cllr Melvyn Teare, portfolio holder for Culture and Heritage, St Albans District Council, told us that "I believe our market is actually thriving."[19] Finally, in their written evidence, NABMA also acknowledged that "it is also right to acknowledge that the decline evidenced by the 'Rhodes Study' is not widespread throughout the country. There are examples of markets continuing to be successful and are full on market days."[20] As examples of older markets continuing to be successful, NABMA offered Bury Market and, on a smaller scale, Hinckley Market in the Midlands, explaining that "over the last year the number of stalls occupied at Hinckley Market has grown by an average of 8.2% and the market has grown from an average of 40 stalls to over 50 stalls."[21] Other examples of successful older markets highlighted to us during the course of our inquiry included Bradford, Bristol, Leicester and Nuneaton Markets, and there are many others.

18. Even accepting that there are more examples of older thriving markets than implied in the Rhodes reports' conclusion, it still appears to be the case that the number of markets in decline is greater than the number of markets that are more than holding their own. When Nick Rhodes, now Head of Leicester Markets and Enterprise, Leicester City Council, gave evidence he told us that "there will be some markets in general that will be declining, and fewer markets in general that are improving",[22] and we found no one prepared to differ substantially from this assessment. Typical comments, to set against those of the previous paragraph, included "in Darlington, which indeed reflects the national picture, the size of the general outdoor markets has seen significant reduction",[23] "some markets have become a shadow of their former lively, bustling selves e.g. Roman Road Market in Bow London, which in the sixties was a large bustling market with a great selection of stalls, attracting people from a reasonable area, and now consists of a very few and down-at-heel that no-one would travel to visit"[24] and "in Portobello Road, over the last six years, there has been a significant reduction in the number of market pitches in regular use on a Saturday, the busiest day, from around 212 to an average of 180. From Monday to Friday the numbers have also been significantly reduced".[25]


19. Judging by the evidence we received, there are a number of factors contributing to the overall decline of the market sector, with probably the most important being increased competition from supermarkets, other alternative cheap retail outlets and now also the internet. Jean-Paul Auguste, Chairman of the long-standing European-wide private market operator the Geraud Markets Group, told us that:

Historically, markets had not many competitors. They were in city centres and life was easy. Now it is a business. It has to be managed as a business, publicly or privately, but it has to be managed as a competitor. When a market is not adapting to that, it has the risk of losing the competition.[26]

Simon Quin, Chief Executive, Association of Town Centre Management (ATCM), commented that:

[…] the brave new world of supermarkets and the brave new world of more immediate shopping took over from markets. Markets that have been the backbone of our town and city centres and indeed the very reason that many centres exist for hundreds, if not a thousand years in some cases, in almost one generation were lost or neglected.[27]

The Western International Tenants' Association, which represents wholesalers in west London and hence has an obvious interest in the viability of its traditional retail market customers, gave a number of reasons why consumers might favour alternative retail outlets. These included a perception that supermarkets are cheaper, the fact that it is quicker to shop in one store, the convenience of supermarket parking and opening hours (which are particularly important for people working full time), a perception that the quality of goods in shops and supermarkets is higher, a perception that traditional retail markets are not fashionable places to shop, and better facilities (eg toilets, lighting).[28] Other submissions drew up similar lists. Michael Felton added payment by credit card and the provision of trolleys (which matter a lot to older people and those with young children), and highlighted in particular that "the discounters—Primark; Poundland; TK Maxx; Wilkinsons are a growing threat [to traditional retail markets]—again selling a vast range of goods competing directly with the traditional market and providing a relatively comfortable shopping arena."[29] As one market trader posted on our web forum:

As supermarkets have grown in size and quantity they have also adopted all things that customers like about markets, 10 years ago, if you wanted fresh fish, you had to go to the local fish market. Supermarket meat was prepacked, as was the veg. To ask for certain size or portions markets were the only place. This has now changed to suit the needs of the customer.[30]

20. Several submissions referred to the sheer juggernaut power of the supermarkets which have, over the past 20 years or so, gained a stranglehold over sales of household goods and groceries that has decimated all forms of independent retailing. Consultancy firm Quarterbridge, for instance, argued that:

Shops and market stalls that sold preserves, dry goods, tinned goods and the like are no longer viable because of supermarkets' ability to undercut them by buying-in long shelf-life stock in bulk, direct from the producer. Retail consolidation has forced many traders out of the industry and left the consumer reliant upon a limited range of retailers and their procurement and pricing policies—not a healthy situation.[31]

One market trader posted on our web forum:

Our large Sunday market has just been refused a license to renew its planning permission because the entry and exit roads are classed as dangerous […] today we have learnt that Tesco has been given permission to build a new store on the very same site. 9 Tescos, 4 Somerfields, 2 Sainsburys, 2 ASDAs, within a 7 mile radius of us and 2 more Tescos being built, is there any wonder no other trader has a chance of survival?

Several submissions also made the point that the internet had become an alternative means of exchange for both prospective market customers and market traders. St Albans Council commented that "many years ago the market stall was the first opportunity for business for such entrepreneurs as Alan Sugar, Jack Cohen (TESCOS) and Marks and Spencers. It is the Internet which offers that opportunity now",[32] whilst Derby Council wrote that "we are aware of at least three traders moving completely to their successful online sales business—hoover bags, toy cars and toy bears."[33]

21. A second, related factor is that consumers have higher expectations from their shopping experience today. This poses a particular challenge for outdoor markets, especially those that do not also contain an indoor element that can still attract customers when the weather is poor. As Professor Sophie Watson pointed out "typically, those that have no cover, which would probably be the vast majority of markets, really struggle through the winter months."[34] Vale Royal Borough Council similarly observed that "today open markets are out of favour as most people today will not shop outdoors unless the weather is good—markets cannot survive on 3 or 4 months of good trading—so sadly the days of open markets are numbered",[35] though there is a caveat that "the one exception to this is Street Markets." Even more fundamentally, customers appear increasingly to want an easier shopping experience and market stalls, where customers need to be more pro-active and knowledgeable in terms of quantity, type of cut, weight, etc., may sometimes be too challenging for today's time-pressed shopper.

22. A third, perhaps more avoidable, factor concerns town planning decisions over the last 20 years or so. A number of contributions stressed the damage done to city markets from unsympathetic city centre redevelopment which had effectively marginalised the market, for instance by relocating it outside the new city centre. Other unhelpful planning decisions cited included pedestrianisation of the market area, thereby making it harder for customers to access the market and leave with their shopping as they have to travel further from bus stops and car parks, and decisions to create large out of town retail outlets. As the Retail Market Alliance explained in their evidence:

Regeneration of our towns and cities often results in a shifting of the commercial/retail centre, leaving markets isolated. Equally, regeneration can result in dispersal of the market's traditional catchment population. The result is shoppers' 'footfall' being moved away from the traditional retail markets. Regeneration can also negatively affect the accessibility of markets by diverting public transport away from traditional markets, and by increasing the availability of car parking (sometimes free or subsidised) as part of their developments.[36]

Meanwhile, on our web forum, one market trader remarked "it is difficult to see how to encourage people to drag their bags of food shopping through pedestrianised streets to get to their mode of transport."[37] Indeed, there appear to be a range of transport-related issues that act to stack the dice against markets, including parking regulations, metering, yellow lines, and so forth, making it difficult for shoppers and traders to park close to the market site.

23. Even where planning has taken account of the local market, it has not always been a success. We saw, for example, in Leicester the legacy of a rather grim, unpopular purpose-built indoor market which the council was now looking either to improve or simply replace. This is by no means an isolated case. As the Retail Markets Alliance observed in their evidence, "many traditional retail markets that were 'modernised' in the 1960s and 70s now appear as concrete bunker-like buildings that do not appeal to modern shoppers."[38]

24. A fourth factor, again commanding a high degree of consensus, is that too often local authorities, who are responsible for the running of nearly all of the indoor English markets, and a good proportion of outdoor markets, have neglected their markets. The weight of evidence suggests that, whilst a few, mainly northern, local authorities have consistently supported and developed their markets, more often than not market decline can be attributed, at least in part, to a lack of investment and/or operator expertise from the responsible council. In his evidence, Michael Felton contrasted the lack of investment in markets by local authorities to "the regular refit by chain stores/supermarkets. Local authorities have been unwilling or unable to invest in the markets other than a 'tarting up' or essential structural repair."[39] Chris Hurdman, an Oxfordshire market trader, also bemoaned the lack of local authority reinvestment, commenting that "markets on which I trade earn in excess of £60,000 per annum for providing floor space on a free car park. I am unaware of any reinvestment."[40] The Retail Markets Alliance reflected not just on a lack of investment, but also of other more intangible factors:

The lack of investment in markets consists of more than just capital. The failure of many local authorities to recognise the strategic value of markets, coupled with local government reorganisation, has had some negative consequences. Many local authorities see markets as a problem that needs to be controlled and managed, rather than a vibrant part of community life. The management responsibility for markets within local authorities varies significantly, ranging from Regeneration, Economic Development to Parks and Leisure, and even Printing. The calibre of manager can also vary considerably, and the common 'regulatory' approach taken by many authorities means that they lack the retail and commercial skills necessary to understand, attract, promote and support the businesses that operate within their markets. There is also a general lack of effective marketing and promotion of markets.[41]

A fifth factor cited in some evidence is the slowness of the market industry to adapt to change. The Retail Market Alliance itself acknowledged that "many traditional markets, market operators and traders have failed to grasp the need for change".[42] One example of the need to adapt more quickly given by a number of contributors is the lack of credit card facilities on markets. Another is the suggested failure of the market industry to promote itself, contrasted—perhaps unfairly—with the slick advertising of supermarkets and shopping centres.

25. A final factor contributing to market decline is a lack of new traders. For market consultant Michael Felton "the shortage of traders is evident from statistics supplied by local authorities retaining us; the number of advertisements in the trade press (Market trader/Market News) seeking further traders; the unwillingness of the younger generation to follow in their parents' businesses—principally the excessive hours."[43] He also cited problems obtaining loans from banks and the decreasing number of wholesalers willing to trade with small retailers as further disincentives.

The outlook for markets

26. Given the range of factors identified above as contributing to the general decline of traditional retail markets, it is clearly legitimate to ask whether they have a long-term future in England. However, the bulk of the evidence we have received suggests that the battle is by no means lost. Ann Coffey MP, Chair of the All-Party Parliamentary Markets Group, who told us that "I think markets have the opportunity to transform themselves into something that is part and parcel of 21st century life",[44] was by no means an isolated voice. Joe Harrison, Chief Executive of the National Market Traders' Federation, affirmed that "there are prime examples throughout the country where markets are still successful and still thriving."[45] Michael Felton concluded that, although the market industry will continue to be subject to extreme pressure, "the tradition will carry on even so as the younger (under 40) population will accept that market shopping while not comparable with other retail, has considerable benefits."[46]

27. Some of the evidence received has even suggested that the worst is over, that markets are already on the comeback trail. Simon Quin, Chief Executive, Association of Town Centre Management, proposed to us that:

[…] just as we all threw out our antiques in the 1960s but are now collecting them again, markets are beginning to come back into fashion in certain ways in certain cases. People have rediscovered the distinctive nature of what markets offer, the uniqueness of what they have.[47]

Several witnesses, including Simon Quin, Anne Coffey MP and Graham Wilson, saw opportunities for markets arising from the recession, on the assumption that consumers are starting to place greater emphasis on value for money, and also that, when loans are harder to come by, markets offer new businesses a more affordable way of starting off. Chris Hurdman observed to us that since the recession "I have found, myself, that we are seeing more people on my markets."[48]

28. The key, as emphasised to us by a number of witnesses, is whether individual markets are able and willing to adapt to changing circumstances, including the increased competition, to ensure that they remain destinations of choice, now that they are no longer destinations of necessity for most people.[49] Whilst our witnesses did not underplay the obstacles, they could point to the longevity of markets, and to recent and ongoing change, as evidence that a number of markets would continue to adapt successfully.

29. Jean-Paul Auguste, Chairman of Gerauds Market Group affirmed that "there are experiences on the continent and here of markets adapting and they are easily successful."[50] Several witnesses including Nick Rhodes suggested that, whilst the increased competition from other low-cost retailers meant that non-food sales were in decline in many markets, food sellers were finding it easier to retain their niche. As further evidence of adaptability, Professor Sophie Watson highlighted the example of Rotherham Market combating the elements through "sail-type umbrella covered markets",[51] whilst Derby Council concluded that "there are fewer traditional market products […] but there are also more specialist products sold and services offered in markets. For example beauty/tanning/nail bars, tattooists, alternative therapy, travel companies, legal advice/age concern and phone unlocking."[52] On a similar theme, Tot Brill, Executive Director for Transport, Environment and Leisure Services, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, observed that "for us the fruit and vegetable traditional bits of the market have been in decline, but Golborne Road Market has recently become a success with the growth of a North African market there."[53] We also heard during our visits to Leicester and Ridley Road (Hackney) Market how markets can renew themselves by selling to and from new ethnic communities. Ridley Road Market in particular has drawn on successive waves of new immigration over the course of the last century.

30. Professor Sophie Watson even suggested that under some circumstances markets can seek to gain from the proximity of supermarkets, arguing that where the supermarket and the market "are quite closely intertwined spatially", as in Central Milton Keynes, "quite often people will move between the market and supermarket and the shops around. So the physical proximity of a market to other retail outlets can enhance the market."[54] Finally, for the Government, Iain Wright MP, then Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, Communities and Local Government, told us why he is optimistic for the future of markets:

I think good, active town centre management, incorporating a whole range of things, as I said, whether it is retail, whether it is cultural, where it is providing information about government services, can be done in markets […][55]

31. The situation as regards traditional retail markets in England today is complex. There is evidence of prolonged decline coinciding with the growth of supermarkets. But there is also evidence of continuing success for some in all types of market. There is scope for optimism for the future provided that local authorities and other key stakeholders are willing and able to rise to the challenges that markets will continue to face.

2   Ev 63 Back

3   Ev 62 Back

4   Sophie Watson with David Studdert, Markets as sites for social interaction Spaces of Diversity, (Bristol 2006). Back

5   Ev 153 Back

6   As above. Back

7   Ev 138 Back

8   Nick Rhodes, First National Survey of Retail Markets, ( Manchester, 2005). Back

9   Then retail market adviser to NABMA, now Head of Leicester Markets and Enterprise, Leicester City Council. He was also a witness to this inquiry. Back

10   First National Survey of Retail Markets, Summary Headline Statistics. By comparison, last year TESCO reported UK sales of over £41.5Bn. Back

11   First National Survey of Retail Markets, Conclusion Back

12   Ev 151 Back

13   Ev 99 Back

14   Ev 63 Back

15   Q 92 Back

16   Q 101 Back

17   Q 25 Back

18   Q 140 Back

19   Q 196 Back

20   Ev 113 Back

21   As above. Back

22   Q 140 Back

23   Ev 56 Back

24   Ev 59 Back

25   Ev 131 Back

26   Q 262 Back

27   Q 53 Back

28   Ev 61 Back

29   Ev 64 Back

30   Web forum post by Jane52, March 22, 11:40AM. Back

31   Ev 128 Back

32   Ev 69 Back

33   Ev 72 Back

34   Q 31 Back

35   Ev 76 Back

36   Ev 99 Back

37   Web forum Jane52, March 22, 11:40AM. Back

38   Ev 99 Back

39   Ev 64 Back

40   Ev 81 Back

41   Ev 99 Back

42   Ev 97 Back

43   Ev 64 Back

44   Q 22 Back

45   Q 50 Back

46   Ev 68 Back

47   Q 53 Back

48   Q 111 Back

49   See also Ev 129 Back

50   Q 262 Back

51   Q 31 Back

52   Ev 71 Back

53   Q 236 Back

54   Q 26 Back

55   Q 335 Back

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