Memorandum by Laura McDermott and Kathryn
Angus, Centre for Social Marketing, University of Strathclyde
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF FOOD INDUSTRY ADVERTISING
Documents were received from two
agencies: Leo Burnett and Abbott Mead Vickers.
The documents are provided in an
organised manner, complete with file indexes.
The data provided seems somewhat
limited in all casesrelatively small files, would have
expected more. Eg Leo Burnett explains that they have only provided
a small number of contact reports because the majority of contact
takes place through email. Suggests we are not getting the full
File 1: Agency: Leo Burnet, Client: Kellogg's,
Product: Coco Pops and Coco Pops Crunchers
Covers five campaigns: "Croco
Pops", "Skate Park", "Jungle Book 2",
"Coco's Quest" and "Crunch that Tune".
Copy tools, creative briefs, research
reports/debriefs, contact reports, samples of other communications
eg website images, packaging, brand profile overview, research
reports from Millward Brown.
"Commercially sensitive material":
Client briefs, creative briefs, media schedules, research debriefs.
Target group for product is explicitly young
children: four to seven year olds for Coco Pops and older kids
between seven to 10 years for Coco Pops Crunchers. The documents
demonstrate a good understanding and knowledge of the target marketeg
importance of fun, adventure, belonging, friends.
Recognise requirements of children (through
research): immediate gratification (eg reward in pack), personal
motive and incentive (prize, £).
Main elements of Coco Pops (CPs) advertising
Media channels: TV, Comics, Internet, Cartoon
Rules for CPs: campaigns centre around chocolatey
fun, shape, interaction (eg write-in on postcard, prizes/free
gifts) and character.
"Chocolately" nature of productuse
"more" and "better" chocolate than competition,
turns milk chocolateya key selling point for the brand
"chocolate is an established property of the brand".
Interaction: web provides "an opportunity
for further dialogue with kids", phone-ins (eg Crunchers
"name that tune").
Use of animated characters is critical ("children
love characters they can relate to").
It is fairly explicit that the advertising seeks
to make the most of young children's "sense of belonging"its
wants children to feel like they can be part of the Coco gang,
and "to believe they are part of Coco's world". "Emotionally
kids love being part of the gang." For the Crunchers target
group it is stated that "more than ever it is important to
fit in with others".
Business objectives stated in research
debrief: "to increase total volume of CPs sold".
Other more specific objectives across
different campaigns include: "increase penetration in core
target by attracting new users to brand", "deepen relationship
with existing users", "increase brand share".
Call to actionoften use phrases
"to drive kids to pack", "to encourage trial"
"drive kids to pack . . . thus driving sales", "drive
kids to try Crunchers".
One ad idea involves major prize
element which would require purchase and 2nd tier brand
involvement eg naming Muppets.
Implicit evidence of "pester
During research, children are asked if
the advert makes them want to ask their mum or dad to buy the
product for them. Research debrief concludes that there is a "strong
intention to ask mum and dad" to buy the cereal, and as this
is coupled with "a likelihood that parents will buy a product
the children ask for", it "has the potential to increase
purchase in the short term".
In "client brief" one goal
is to "continue regular requesting throughout year".
Ads also specified by client to be aired
on days closest to shopping trips (ie late in working week and
on weekends) for "recency" (TV advertising takes place
during kids TV viewing times).
Comment also made that a specific promo
(magnifier/map) "wont stimulate great pestering for CPs".
Kids and parents.
Approaches: paired depth interviews,
focus groups, friendship triads, 20 min questionnaire with six
to 15 year olds (Milward Brown).
Typology of users"fans"
"floaters" "eat them a lot" "never heard
of them" etc.
Measures/indicators (usually categorised
as brand memorability, communication and delivery).
Consumption (recency, etc).
Attitudes: towards ad,
product, characters (incl use of personality descriptors for characters).
of story, message.
Ad- brand relationship
(eg "how good was the ad at making you remember it was for
Kellogg's Coco Pops".
Product usage (consumption).
whether ad influences consumption (eg make you want to eat CPs)
and requests made to parents (eg. "does the advert make you
want to ask your mum or dad to buy it for you" "if yes,
is that definitely or maybe").
Competition described only in terms of
other children's cereal brands
File 2: Agency: Leo Burnett, Client:
McDonalds, Product: Happy Meal
Cover 12 Happy Meal Campaigns: "Bear
in the Big Blue House", "The Muppets", "Treasure
Planet", "BVHE Bundle Pinocchio", Jungle Book 2",
"Clifford", "Action Man/Betty Spaghetti",
"Tweenies", "Hoobs", "Hamtro/Transformers",
"Bubble Gum/Microstars TV", "Finding Nemo".
First half of file not particularly
useful: only scripts and contacts reports.
"Commercially sensitive material"
file slightly more useful. Contains client briefs and creative
Consistent for most happy meal promotions as
"young families' ie parents with children aged between three
to seven years. Play on themes of fun, imaginative play, slapstick
humour, energetic, make-believe, etc.
Kids three to seven labelled "Explorers".
Kids eight to 12 labelled "Aspirers"acknowledge
in a client brief that this age group "have more family influence"
and "take control of the interests they share with friends
to be cool and belong."
Main elements of McDs advertising
Happy meal promotions primarily TV advertising
and in-store restaurant promotioncampaigns usually very
short term (eg four weeks). Collectable toys are given away with
purchases of Happy Meals.
Branding (McDs, Happy Meal) central to advertising.
Links with 3rd party advertisers (eg Disney, Henson Productions,
Promotions often also focus on the experience
of being in McDs (as well as toys); acknowledge the "playful"
nature of McDs.
In client briefs, McDs clearly state that overall
business objective is to increase transactions/sales per store.
In client briefs, McDs also recognise there is "scope to
increase frequency from light to heavy users" (as kids visit
McDs with parent).
"Make kids feel like McDs really understands
them . . ."
More specific communications objectives vary
but centre on "raising excitement", "building the
Happy Meal brand" etc.
Some promotions seek to get children to believe
"I've got to have a happy meal so that I can have an X toy"
(from creative briefs).
Under a proposed campaign (Hamtaro) one aim
of providing free cinema tickets is to "elicit immediate
responsepurchase intention" and other communication
objective (Finding Nemo campaign) is to "create magic around
the property and bring toys to life . . . to generate desire and
illicit immediate response: purchase intention."
Tracking research undertaken with
children and parents (mums).
Questions centre on: the McDs experience
(no of visits, frequency of visits, recency of visits, who visits),
consumption (what mum eats, what child eats, knowledge of products
available), perceptions of McDs (brand awareness, likes, dislikes,
mums perceptions of food values and menu choice), Ronald McDonald
(awareness, liking, personality, association with restaurant).
Competitors listed (QSRs): Burger
King, KFC, Pizza Hut.
File 3: Agency: Abbot Mead Vickers,
Client: Pepsico, Product: Pepsi
Agency: Abbot Mead Vickers, Client: Frito
Lay (part of Pepsi Co?), Product: Wotsits
Evidence of encouraging pester-power
Nothing much for Pepsi as target
audience of campaign is for mid-teens to adults.
Sent very few Creative Briefs, Client
Briefs, internal correspondence.
Not a great deal of things in the
research debriefs: often it's not about how they market the product
but how the kids' recall rates compare between them and competitors'
etc. Sales figures are compared.
Brand idea: "Ask For More . . . create
the life you want to live, a life with friends, full of fun, unique,
Competition to meet Beckham, win Beckham posters.
Win musicMs Dynamite & Blue.
Posters, TV ads, magazines all have website
address database created of 13-24 year olds accessing website
Pepsi is partnered with FA for "Youth Football".
Market Research segment not clearly defined
but one slide breaks down results into 12-19 males, 20-39 males,
12-19 females and 20-39 females.
Beckham Ad (OK Corral) "creates good user
imagerybeing cool, trendy, adventurous drinkers".
Research compares Becckham OK Corral ad with
competitor (Coca-Cola's) Arquettes and Penelope Cruz ads.
Teens sample mapped: Pepsi vs Coca-Cola.
Wotsits Creative Brief
"Get . . . these people: Kids . . . Bullseye
10-12 years (not very young but not teens) To . . . think/feel/do
this . . . Buy them when they have the chance, ask Mum for them
when she goes shopping."
Media Strategy Brief
"What is the desired consumer response?
Wotsits are for meI"m
going to buy them when I get the chance and pester Mum for them
when she next goes shopping."
Target Audience: C1C2, four to nine years, 10+
years, male and female.
"Mums don't necessarily have to like the
campaign but should not be so offended that they stop purchasing
the brand for their children."
Compares Wotsits (a Walkers' product) with other
Walkers' crisps (eg Quavers, MonsterMunch).
Sample: eight to 11, 12-15, 16-34, Mum's with
Wotsits sponsored SMTV Live on Saturday mornings
at time of campaign with idents at start and end of show and around
all ad breaks.
Client Brief (SMTV)
"Get . . . these people: Kids . . . six
to 12, Bullseye 11 year old boys (bosses of the Primary School!)
. . . By . . . saying this: it's the most anarchic and funny snack."
Use characterBum Man.
34% kids watch regularly<nt66% kids watch occasionally<et18%
(Looking at sponsorship recall figures, seems
SMTV Live is traditionally sponsored by a food product).
In-pack Beyblade promotion
(spinning toybattle in "arenas",
also a cartoon).
Client Brief (Beyblade)
"Who are we trying to influence. Kids aged
seven to 11".
24 models to collectone in every three/four
"Marketing Objective: drive volume across
key snack brands . . . target: eight to 12 year olds".
Research compares Beyblades promotion with other
Walkers promotionsstickers and Pokemon. Eight to 11 and
eight to 15 year olds.
"Where did you see or hear about the promotion?
TV 45%; Packet 49%; Shop 23%; Word of Mouth
Walkers Text 2 Win TV Ad
No client briefs or creative briefs sent
(competition to win TVs, DVDs, Playstation 2s,
Picture Phones etc.)
Wotsits In-Store Displays
Agency sent photos of cardboard stands from
Jan-Feb brand relaunch.