Select Committee on Health Written Evidence


Memorandum by Laura McDermott and Kathryn Angus, Centre for Social Marketing, University of Strathclyde (OB 24)



    —  Documents were received from two agencies: Leo Burnett and Abbott Mead Vickers.

    —  The documents are provided in an organised manner, complete with file indexes.

    —  The data provided seems somewhat limited in all cases—relatively small files, would have expected more. Eg Leo Burnett explains that they have only provided a small number of contact reports because the majority of contact takes place through email. Suggests we are not getting the full picture

File 1: Agency: Leo Burnet, Client: Kellogg's, Product: Coco Pops and Coco Pops Crunchers


    —  Covers five campaigns: "Croco Pops", "Skate Park", "Jungle Book 2", "Coco's Quest" and "Crunch that Tune".

    —  Copy tools, creative briefs, research reports/debriefs, contact reports, samples of other communications eg website images, packaging, brand profile overview, research reports from Millward Brown.

    —  "Commercially sensitive material": Client briefs, creative briefs, media schedules, research debriefs.


Target group

  Target group for product is explicitly young children: four to seven year olds for Coco Pops and older kids between seven to 10 years for Coco Pops Crunchers. The documents demonstrate a good understanding and knowledge of the target market—eg importance of fun, adventure, belonging, friends.

  Recognise requirements of children (through research): immediate gratification (eg reward in pack), personal motive and incentive (prize, £).

Main elements of Coco Pops (CPs) advertising

  Media channels: TV, Comics, Internet, Cartoon Network.

  Rules for CPs: campaigns centre around chocolatey fun, shape, interaction (eg write-in on postcard, prizes/free gifts) and character.

  "Chocolately" nature of product—use "more" and "better" chocolate than competition, turns milk chocolatey—a key selling point for the brand "chocolate is an established property of the brand".

  Interaction: web provides "an opportunity for further dialogue with kids", phone-ins (eg Crunchers "name that tune").

  Use of animated characters is critical ("children love characters they can relate to").

  It is fairly explicit that the advertising seeks to make the most of young children's "sense of belonging"—its wants children to feel like they can be part of the Coco gang, and "to believe they are part of Coco's world". "Emotionally kids love being part of the gang." For the Crunchers target group it is stated that "more than ever it is important to fit in with others".


    —  Business objectives stated in research debrief: "to increase total volume of CPs sold".

    —  Other more specific objectives across different campaigns include: "increase penetration in core target by attracting new users to brand", "deepen relationship with existing users", "increase brand share".

    —  Call to action—often use phrases "to drive kids to pack", "to encourage trial" "drive kids to pack . . . thus driving sales", "drive kids to try Crunchers".

    —  One ad idea involves major prize element which would require purchase and 2nd tier brand involvement eg naming Muppets.

    —  Implicit evidence of "pester power":

—  During research, children are asked if the advert makes them want to ask their mum or dad to buy the product for them. Research debrief concludes that there is a "strong intention to ask mum and dad" to buy the cereal, and as this is coupled with "a likelihood that parents will buy a product the children ask for", it "has the potential to increase purchase in the short term".

—  In "client brief" one goal is to "continue regular requesting throughout year".

—  Ads also specified by client to be aired on days closest to shopping trips (ie late in working week and on weekends) for "recency" (TV advertising takes place during kids TV viewing times).

—  Comment also made that a specific promo (magnifier/map) "wont stimulate great pestering for CPs".


    —  Methods:

—  Kids and parents.

—  Approaches: paired depth interviews, focus groups, friendship triads, 20 min questionnaire with six to 15 year olds (Milward Brown).

—  Typology of users—"fans" "floaters" "eat them a lot" "never heard of them" etc.

—  Measures/indicators (usually categorised as brand memorability, communication and delivery).

        —  Consumption (recency, etc).

        —  Awareness/recall: advert, story, characters.

        —  Attitudes: towards ad, product, characters (incl use of personality descriptors for characters).

        —  Understanding/comprehension of story, message.

        —  Ad- brand relationship (eg "how good was the ad at making you remember it was for Kellogg's Coco Pops".

        —  Product usage (consumption).

        —  Persuasion—asked whether ad influences consumption (eg make you want to eat CPs) and requests made to parents (eg. "does the advert make you want to ask your mum or dad to buy it for you" "if yes, is that definitely or maybe").

—  Competition described only in terms of other children's cereal brands

File 2:  Agency: Leo Burnett, Client: McDonalds, Product: Happy Meal


    —  Cover 12 Happy Meal Campaigns: "Bear in the Big Blue House", "The Muppets", "Treasure Planet", "BVHE Bundle Pinocchio", Jungle Book 2", "Clifford", "Action Man/Betty Spaghetti", "Tweenies", "Hoobs", "Hamtro/Transformers", "Bubble Gum/Microstars TV", "Finding Nemo".

    —  First half of file not particularly useful: only scripts and contacts reports.

    —  "Commercially sensitive material" file slightly more useful. Contains client briefs and creative briefs.


Target Group

  Consistent for most happy meal promotions as "young families' ie parents with children aged between three to seven years. Play on themes of fun, imaginative play, slapstick humour, energetic, make-believe, etc.

  Kids three to seven labelled "Explorers".

  Kids eight to 12 labelled "Aspirers"—acknowledge in a client brief that this age group "have more family influence" and "take control of the interests they share with friends to be cool and belong."

Main elements of McDs advertising

  Happy meal promotions primarily TV advertising and in-store restaurant promotion—campaigns usually very short term (eg four weeks). Collectable toys are given away with purchases of Happy Meals.

  Branding (McDs, Happy Meal) central to advertising. Links with 3rd party advertisers (eg Disney, Henson Productions, etc).

  Promotions often also focus on the experience of being in McDs (as well as toys); acknowledge the "playful" nature of McDs.


  In client briefs, McDs clearly state that overall business objective is to increase transactions/sales per store. In client briefs, McDs also recognise there is "scope to increase frequency from light to heavy users" (as kids visit McDs with parent).

  "Make kids feel like McDs really understands them . . ."

  More specific communications objectives vary but centre on "raising excitement", "building the Happy Meal brand" etc.

  Some promotions seek to get children to believe "I've got to have a happy meal so that I can have an X toy" (from creative briefs).

  Under a proposed campaign (Hamtaro) one aim of providing free cinema tickets is to "elicit immediate response—purchase intention" and other communication objective (Finding Nemo campaign) is to "create magic around the property and bring toys to life . . . to generate desire and illicit immediate response: purchase intention."


    —  Tracking research undertaken with children and parents (mums).

    —  Questions centre on: the McDs experience (no of visits, frequency of visits, recency of visits, who visits), consumption (what mum eats, what child eats, knowledge of products available), perceptions of McDs (brand awareness, likes, dislikes, mums perceptions of food values and menu choice), Ronald McDonald (awareness, liking, personality, association with restaurant).

    —  Competitors listed (QSRs): Burger King, KFC, Pizza Hut.

File 3:  Agency: Abbot Mead Vickers, Client: Pepsico, Product: Pepsi

Agency: Abbot Mead Vickers, Client: Frito Lay (part of Pepsi Co?), Product: Wotsits


    —  Evidence of encouraging pester-power for Wotsits.

    —  Nothing much for Pepsi as target audience of campaign is for mid-teens to adults.

    —  Sent very few Creative Briefs, Client Briefs, internal correspondence.

    —  Not a great deal of things in the research debriefs: often it's not about how they market the product but how the kids' recall rates compare between them and competitors' etc. Sales figures are compared.


  Brand idea: "Ask For More . . . create the life you want to live, a life with friends, full of fun, unique, exciting experiences."


  Competition to meet Beckham, win Beckham posters.

  Win music—Ms Dynamite & Blue.

  Posters, TV ads, magazines all have website address database created of 13-24 year olds accessing website direct marketing.


  Pepsi is partnered with FA for "Youth Football".


  Market Research segment not clearly defined but one slide breaks down results into 12-19 males, 20-39 males, 12-19 females and 20-39 females.

  Beckham Ad (OK Corral) "creates good user imagery—being cool, trendy, adventurous drinkers".

  Research compares Becckham OK Corral ad with competitor (Coca-Cola's) Arquettes and Penelope Cruz ads.

Brand Personality

  Teens sample mapped: Pepsi vs Coca-Cola.


Wotsits Creative Brief

  "Get . . . these people: Kids . . . Bullseye 10-12 years (not very young but not teens) To . . . think/feel/do this . . . Buy them when they have the chance, ask Mum for them when she goes shopping."

Media Strategy Brief

  "What is the desired consumer response?

    —  Wotsits are for me—I"m going to buy them when I get the chance and pester Mum for them when she next goes shopping."

  Target Audience: C1C2, four to nine years, 10+ years, male and female.

  "Mums don't necessarily have to like the campaign but should not be so offended that they stop purchasing the brand for their children."


  Compares Wotsits (a Walkers' product) with other Walkers' crisps (eg Quavers, MonsterMunch).

  Sample: eight to 11, 12-15, 16-34, Mum's with kids.


  Wotsits sponsored SMTV Live on Saturday mornings at time of campaign with idents at start and end of show and around all ad breaks.

Client Brief (SMTV)

  "Get . . . these people: Kids . . . six to 12, Bullseye 11 year old boys (bosses of the Primary School!) . . . By . . . saying this: it's the most anarchic and funny snack."

  Use character—Bum Man.

Viewership (SMTV)

34% kids watch regularly<nt66% kids watch occasionally<et18% teens<nt82% teens.<et

  (Looking at sponsorship recall figures, seems SMTV Live is traditionally sponsored by a food product).

In-pack Beyblade promotion

  (spinning toy—battle in "arenas", also a cartoon).

Client Brief (Beyblade)

  "Who are we trying to influence. Kids aged seven to 11".

  24 models to collect—one in every three/four packs.


  "Marketing Objective: drive volume across key snack brands . . . target: eight to 12 year olds".

  "Generate excitement".

  Research compares Beyblades promotion with other Walkers promotions—stickers and Pokemon. Eight to 11 and eight to 15 year olds.

  "Where did you see or hear about the promotion? (Beyblades).

  TV 45%; Packet 49%; Shop 23%; Word of Mouth 22%.

Walkers Text 2 Win TV Ad

  No client briefs or creative briefs sent

  (competition to win TVs, DVDs, Playstation 2s, Picture Phones etc.)

Wotsits In-Store Displays

  Agency sent photos of cardboard stands from Jan-Feb brand relaunch.

November 2003

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Prepared 14 June 2004