Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport Written Evidence


Memorandum submitted by the National Dance Teachers Association

DANCE IN SCHOOLS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.  INTRODUCTION

  1.1  The paper "Dance in Schools" (attached) is a full statement regarding key issues and concerns for dance in schools. It is based on the draft of a policy paper that the NDTA is currently preparing and represents the views of NDTA members who have contributed to its content through central and regional meetings and a Dance in the National Curriculum Survey in Summer 2001 (see Appendix A Survey Results).

2.  NATIONAL DANCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (NDTA)

  2.1  The NDTA works to ensure that all young people in the UK have entitlement and access to high quality dance education.

  2.2  The National Dance Teachers' Association (NDTA) is the only organisation representing dance teachers in schools. The NDTA was founded in 1988 and membership currently stands at approximately 900. It is a registered charity run by an executive committee on a voluntary basis (see attached list of current Executive Committee Members). Individual members include primary and secondary teachers, lecturers in further and higher education, advisers, inspectors, dance artists and community dance practitioners. Organisational members include schools, colleges, dance companies, LEA education centres, National Dance Agencies and other dance agencies.

3.  CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND INITIATIVES

  3.1  The Select Committee Enquiry comes at a significant time for dance in education—there are currently a number of opportunities for growth and development in both the arts and physical education sectors within schools. These include:

    —  Government Initiatives, eg Sports and the Performing Arts Specialist Schools programme, Creative Partnerships, Physical Education and School Sport initiatives.

    —  Growing awareness that boys should have equal entitlement and access to dance as girls.

    —  Large increase in the number of schools offering dance as a separate subject or as an option within either PE or other arts examinations.

    —  The National PE and School Sport Professional Development Programme has been established, funded by DfES, which includes some dance specific modules written by the NDTA.

    —  Significant expansion in the use of professional dance artists to enhance and extend the dance curriculum in schools.

    —  NDTA partnership with both the Specialist Schools Trust and Youth Sports Trust to develop the Specialist Schools Best Practice Dance Network.

4.  WHY DANCE IN THE CURRICULUM?

4.1  Rationale

    —  Dance is a distinct area of experience fundamental to human culture and as such has the potential to offer unique learning opportunities within the school curriculum.

    —  As one of the major art forms, its intrinsic value lies in the possibilities it offers for the development of pupils' creative, imaginative, physical, emotional and intellectual capacities.

    —  Because of its physical nature, dance provides a means of expression and communication distinct from other art forms and because of its expressive and creative nature it stands apart from other physical activities.

    —  The practical, theoretical and contextual study of dance as an art form contributes to pupils' artistic, physical, aesthetic, cultural, and social development.

    —  It plays an important role in promoting physical fitness and well being and contributes to pupils' understanding of how to maintain a healthy life style.

4.2  Conceptual Framework for Teaching Dance

    —  It is now widely accepted that the interrelated study of composition, performance and appreciation provides a coherent conceptual framework for the study of dance.

    —  This framework is implicit within the National Curriculum and provides the underpinning rationale for a wide range of dance courses and examinations available at KS4, post 16 and in Higher Education.

4.3  Benefits Across the Curriculum

  In addition to the special contribution that dance makes to both arts and physical education learning and teaching in dance supports the development of a broad range of skills, knowledge and understanding:

    —  It provides opportunities for developing a range of personal, social, physical, creative, and transferable skills.

    —  It provides opportunities for the development of key skills such as numeracy and literacy and through cross-curricular, thematic and collaborative working learning can be supported in other subject areas.

    —  Pupils develop their capacity to think and to work confidently, trusting their own ideas and judgements.

4.4  Career Choices and Participation

    —  A high quality dance education enables pupils to make informed choices about participation in dance beyond school and into adult life.

    —  Pupils should have access to information about routes into further and higher education and professional training.

    —  They should be informed of the increasing and changing opportunities for employment in dance and the arts.

    —  They should learn about the nature and provision of dance within recreational, educational, vocational and professional settings and be aware how they can access dance as a creator, performer, participant and viewer.

5.  CURRENT PROVISION FOR DANCE IN SCHOOLS

    —  For the purposes of the English National Curriculum, dance is located within physical education (PE) providing an artistic and cultural dimension to the PE curriculum.

    —  The provision of dance at both primary and secondary level throughout the country can be very different from school to school.

    —  Although nationally the number of pupils taking dance examinations is relatively small, numbers are on the increase as is the range of examination opportunities available. There has been a significant increase in the number of candidates taking GCSE Performing Arts: Dance during the current academic year.

    —  The large increase in the number of specialist schools is impacting on dance provision nationally.

    —  In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the use of professional dance artists to enhance and extend the dance curriculum in schools.

    —  There is a lack of availability of high quality dance experiences and training that equip young people for the demands of vocational training and a career in dance.

    —  Existing good practice shows that partnerships between schools and community dance practitioners, professional artists or youth dance leaders enable many young people to develop their skills and interest in dance.

6.  KEY ISSUE I  THE PLACE OF DANCE IN THE CURRICULUM

  There are major concerns that arise as a result of the current place of dance solely within the physical education national curriculum:

    —  lack of status in schools;

    —  lack of emphasis on the creative and artistic nature of the subject;

    —  need to fit in with a rationale and conceptual framework that applies to a diverse range of skill based physical activities;

    —  lack of entitlement for boys in secondary schools; and

    —  insufficient links between dance and other arts subjects in schools.

7.  KEY ISSUE II  SHORTAGE OF DANCE TEACHERS

    —  In primary schools many class teachers struggle to teach dance as they have received poor initial training in the subject and lack the confidence necessary for effective delivery.

    —  Despite clear efforts from the Teacher Training Agency to increase the number of places for initial dance teacher training, there is a chronic shortage of specialist dance teachers able to meet the demands of the expanding specialist schools programme and interest in the subject across many secondary schools, including at examination level.

8.  KEY ISSUE III  CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    —  Inadequate initial training means that many teachers, at both primary and secondary levels, do not feel well prepared to teach dance.

    —  Currently, CPD provision for dance around the country is variable in quality and outcome.

9.  LOOKING AHEAD: NDTA ENTITLEMENT STATEMENT

  The NDTA proposes that all young people are entitled to a dance education:

    —  that ensures opportunity for them to develop their knowledge, skills and understanding in a variety of dance forms;

    —  that ensures the opportunity to compose, perform and appreciate dances;

    —  that includes experience of dances from different cultures;

    —  that enables them to recognise and understand their own cultural values, and those of others;

    —  that allows them to experience live and recorded original work by professional artists;

    —  that opens doors to employment possibilities in the arts sector; and

    —  that enables the creative use of uncommitted time in adult life, continued involvement in dance as a lifelong pursuit, and engagement in dance activities beyond formal education.

  This can only be provided by teachers who have had high quality initial teacher training, on-going support and first-rate Continuous Professional Development.

MAIN SUBMISSION

INTRODUCTION

  The NDTA is very pleased to submit evidence to the Culture Media and Sport Committee concerning dance in schools.

  This paper is a full statement regarding key issues and concerns for dance in schools. It is based on the draft of a policy paper that the NDTA is currently preparing and represents the views of NDTA members who have contributed to its content through central and regional meetings and a Dance in the National Curriculum Survey in Summer 2001 (see Appendix A Survey Results).

  This paper uses the English curriculum and qualifications as a basis for its discussion, although it is recognised that many of the same issues arise in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. NDTA members in Scotland have provided significant input to preparation of the paper and, although not mentioned throughout, the principles in the Scottish National Guidelines for Expressive Arts (5-14) raise the same issues as the English National Curriculum at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3. The concerns expressed regarding the time available for dance in initial teacher training are identical at both primary and secondary PE level across the UK.


NATIONAL DANCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (NDTA)

  The NDTA works to ensure that all young people in the United Kingdom have entitlement and access to high quality dance education.

  The National Dance Teachers' Association (NDTA) is the only organisation representing dance teachers in schools. The NDTA was founded in 1988 and membership currently stands at approximately 900. It is a registered charity run by an executive committee on a voluntary basis. Individual members include primary and secondary teachers, lecturers in further and higher education, advisers, inspectors, dance artists and community dance practitioners. Organisational members include schools, colleges, dance companies, LEA education centres, National Dance Agencies and other dance agencies.

  Since its inception, the NDTA has actively lobbied for the place of dance in the curriculum and is regularly called upon to attend meetings with government agencies eg Qualifications and Curriculum Authority; Teacher Training Agency; Arts Council. The NDTA has strong links with other dance, physical education and arts organisations including: Physical Education Authority (PEA); British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education (BAALPE); Foundation for Community Dance; Arts Council for England, and the newly formed Youth Dance England.

  The NDTA's major function is to support its members in delivering quality dance provision in schools. Its activities include:

    —  An annual national conference.

    —  Continuing professional development programme.

    —  Development and dissemination of best practice.

    —  Regional networks.

    —  Web-site www.ndta.org.uk.

    —  Termly publication Dance Matters.

  Since its formation, the NDTA has worked in partnership with many other agencies to support the teaching of dance in schools. These have included the Council for Dance Education and Training (CDET); The Standing Conference in Dance in Higher Education (SCODHE); British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education (BAALPE); Sadler's Wells Education Department; Youth Sports Trust; Specialist Schools Trust; Dance in Partnership, Yorkshire.

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND INITIATIVES

  The Select Committee Enquiry comes at a significant time for dance in education—there are currently a number of opportunities for growth and development in both the arts and physical education sectors within schools. A number of government led initiatives have had positive impact on dance education including:

    —  Sports and the Performing Arts Specialist Schools programme.

    —  Creative Partnerships.

    —  Physical Education and School Sport initiatives.

    —  Artsmark.

    —  Sportsmark.

    —  Excellence in Cities.

    —  Partnerships for Progression/Aim Higher.

  Dance in schools has never been in a stronger position as increasingly the subject is recognised as having considerable benefits across the curriculum. Around the country there are schools that demonstrate the impact of dance on the achievement of young people and some local authorities are investing in the structures necessary for the promotion of the subject eg:

    —  Hertfordshire has an Adviser for Teaching & Learning—Dance.

    —  Suffolk employs a full-time Advisory Dance Teacher.

    —  Hammersmith and Fulham have a full-time Inspector for the Arts.

    —  Birmingham has an Arts Education officer.

    —  Manchester has a specialist dance education centre located within Zion Arts Centre.

  There is a growing awareness that boys should have equal entitlement and access to dance as girls. Despite the lack of provision for dance in most boys secondary schools and many mixed schools, there has been significant progress in challenging the stereotype that boys do not dance, and in understanding strategies that encourage boys to participate in dance. Examples of best practice include:

    —  South Dartmoor Community College, Devon has been nationally recognised for its work with boys both in the curriculum and after school.

    —  Homewood School and Sixth Form Centre, Kent has established an all boys dance company for Key Stage 4 and post-16 pupils that has links with Brighton University Physical Education Department.

    —  At Ascham House School in Gosforth, dance has been introduced as an integral part of the development of learning and teaching strategies that are responsive to the specific and particular needs of boys.

  In recent years there has been a large increase in the number of schools offering dance as a separate subject or as an option within either PE or other arts examinations.

  The National PE and School Sport Professional Development Programme has been established, funded by DfES, which includes some dance specific modules written by the NDTA.

  Throughout the last year the NDTA has been part of a highly successful partnership with both the Specialist Schools Trust and Youth Sports Trust the Best Practice Dance Network. Supported by the DfES and Arts Council the three organisations have been working together to create a "leading practitioner owned" network. Activities have centred around the following:

    —  Identifying leading-edge practitioners.

    —  Producing best practice case studies.

    —  Organising two Dance Platforms for schools.

    —  Developing a Gifted and Talented Framework.

    —  Providing CPD opportunities.

  This project highlights the advantages of bringing together key organisations from the arts and physical education, with the subject expertise provided by the NDTA. It is a model that should be duplicated elsewhere in order that curriculum development and innovation in dance can be supported nationally.


WHY DANCE IN THE CURRICULUM?

Rationale

  Dance is a distinct area of experience fundamental to human culture and as such has the potential to offer unique learning opportunities within the school curriculum. As one of the major art forms, its intrinsic value lies in the possibilities it offers for the development of pupils' creative, imaginative, physical, emotional and intellectual capacities. Because of its physical nature, dance provides a means of expression and communication distinct from other art forms and because of its expressive and creative nature it stands apart from other physical activities.

  The practical, theoretical and contextual study of dance as an art form contributes to pupils' artistic, physical, aesthetic, cultural, and social development. It enables pupils to find their own voice as creator, performer and critic. Dance makes a special contribution to both physical and arts education, supports learning in other subjects and facilitates the development of key skills. It plays an important role in promoting physical fitness and well-being and contributes to pupils' understanding of how to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

  A high quality dance education equips pupils to make informed choices about further study, employment, leisure, life style and life long learning.

Conceptual Framework for Teaching Dance

  It is now widely accepted that the interrelated study of composition, performance and appreciation provides a coherent conceptual framework for the study of dance.

  This framework is implicit within the National Curriculum and provides the underpinning rationale for a wide range of dance courses and examinations available at KS4, post 16 and in Higher Education.

  Creating dances provides pupils with the opportunity to make individual responses to their world. They learn how to research, explore and communicate ideas and how to structure movement material into coherent form. When given the opportunity to experience a range of dance genres and styles, pupils develop an understanding of how to employ different approaches to choreographing and presenting their work. Working creatively develops pupils' capacity to be open minded, to question, to challenge and to take risks. They learn to become independent thinkers and to work collaboratively with other individuals.

  Performing dances demands that pupils develop and extend the range of their movement vocabulary and that they demonstrate increasing physical and technical competence in a range of styles and techniques. They learn how to communicate artistic intention through movement and to perform expressively with a sense of musicality, focus and projection to an audience. They develop their ability to relate to other dancers, to the accompaniment and to their physical environment. They gain knowledge of how the body works within the context of different physical, artistic and technical demands and of how to use their own body safely.

  Appreciating dances facilitates the development of aesthetic, artistic and cultural understanding. Through practical and theoretical experience of dance from a diverse range of cultural contexts, pupils develop an understanding of a variety of artistic traditions. They gain insight into the way in which different beliefs, values and attitudes inform dance practice and understand that approaches to making and presenting dances continue to evolve and change. Through viewing the work of their peers, as well as a wide range of recorded and live professional performances, pupils learn to describe, analyse, interpret and evaluate dances and develop their ability to make informed critical judgements. They are able to recognise and understand the similarities and differences between dance genres and the work of different choreographers. Dance appreciation enables pupils to engage emotionally, imaginatively and intellectually with dance works and to value them for their own sake.

Benefits Across the Curriculum

  Through creating, performing and appreciating dances, not only do pupils develop skills, knowledge and understanding of the art form but dance also makes a special contribution to both arts education and physical education. Additionally, it has an important role to play in helping pupils to become physically fit. It helps to develop their understanding of how to develop and maintain an active and healthy lifestyle and extends the range of choices available for them to be involved in physical activity.

  The interrelated processes of composing, performing and appreciating dance as an art form provide opportunities for developing a range of personal, social, physical and transferable skills. Through working with their peers, pupils develop the ability to organise, lead, co-operate, challenge, discuss, debate and collaborate. They learn how to manage their time, to be self reliant, to assess risks, to work safely and to take responsibility for themselves and others. They learn how to anticipate, plan, adjust and solve problems. They develop their capacity to think and to work confidently, trusting their own ideas and judgements. They increase their range of verbal and non-verbal communication skills. Learning and teaching in dance provides opportunities for the development of key skills such as numeracy and literacy and through cross-curricular, thematic and collaborative working learning can be supported in other subject areas.

Career Choices and Participation

  A high quality dance education enables pupils to make informed choices about participation in dance beyond school and into adult life. Pupils should have access to information about routes into further and higher education and professional training. They should be informed of the increasing and changing opportunities for employment in dance and the arts. They should learn about the nature and provision of dance within recreational, educational, vocational and professional settings and be aware how they can access dance as a creator, performer, participant and viewer.


CURRENT PROVISION FOR DANCE IN SCHOOLS

  For the purposes of the English National Curriculum, dance is located within physical education (PE) providing an artistic and cultural dimension to the PE curriculum. It is acknowledged as one of the major art forms, and has strong links with drama, music and visual arts. The 1995 Statutory Orders included dance as a compulsory part of the PE curriculum at Key Stage 1 (KS1) and Key Stage 2 (KS2) and as an optional part of the PE programme at Key Stages 3 and 4 (KS3 and KS4).

  The position of dance at both primary and secondary level throughout the country can be very different from school to school. The time available for dance, the content of the dance curriculum and the specialist skills, knowledge and understanding of the teacher varies between schools and between local education authorities (LEAs).

  Opportunities for the development of dance in the Foundation Stage can be identified within the Early Learning Goals. The provision of dance within early years does, however, vary from setting to setting based upon the confidence and expertise of individual early years practitioners. Some Early Years Development and Childcare Partnerships and Sure Start projects are attempting to address this through various arts projects and training initiatives.

  Although provision of dance in the curriculum at KS1 and KS2 is compulsory, it is limited in many schools, as are other aspects of PE and the arts. This is partly due to the emphasis on literacy and numeracy, and partly because of a lack of teacher expertise. At KS3, if provision is within the PE programme, the amount of time given to dance varies considerably. Some schools offer dance only to girls, and single sex boys schools are unlikely to offer dance at all. In schools where dance education is located within a performing arts faculty it may seem to have a more stable position in the curriculum, but may be delivered as part of a carousel with other arts subjects.

  At KS4 the position is equally varied. Only a minority of schools offer dance as one of the PE options. However, GCSE Performing Arts:Dance is being offered in an increasing number of schools and colleges. The number of candidates in 2003 was 10,091.

  GCSE Performing Arts:Dance has been significant in the development of dance in schools as it has ensured that some progression in the subject is available to young people. In addition, dance is included as an option within GCSE Expressive Arts, GCSE Physical Education and the GNVQ (Intermediate) in Performing Arts (equivalent to four GCSEs) which is available to KS4 and post-16 students.

  Dance examinations are not a viable option in many schools as they do not have teachers with the necessary specialist subject knowledge. In addition to this many schools have insufficient dance provision in the lower school to prepare pupils for GSCE Performing Arts:Dance or other examination courses. Also, where dance examinations are offered, option schemes can make it difficult for pupils to choose one or more arts subjects and small groups are often not allowed to run because of financial constraints.

  At post 16, the demand for AS and A2 Dance has grown over recent years, but the number of schools offering them remains relatively small. In 2003 2,540 candidates took the AS Dance examination and 1,157 at AL. These courses are more common in further education colleges or large sixth form centres, many of which also offer BTEC Nationals, which now include three specialist dance qualifications leading to the National Award, Certificate or Diploma. At this level the development of combined performing arts qualifications has also been significant in improving participation in dance. As well as the AS and A Level Performance Studies, many centres are taking up the Advanced VCE in Performing Arts and now offer the BTEC Nationals in both Performing Arts and Musical Theatre.

  Recent education policy in England has seen a large increase in the number of specialist schools. At the time of writing there are 260 specialist Sports Colleges and 209 Arts Colleges, of which 175 are specialist in Performing Arts, with the government aiming to increase these numbers by 2006. Many of these schools have made dance a priority area for development, thus increasing the demand for specialist dance teachers.

  In recent years, there has been a significant expansion in the use of professional dance artists to enhance and extend the dance curriculum in schools. This usually takes the form of projects with particular year groups within the main curriculum or the provision of after-school clubs and activities. The growth of the latter has been supported by the New Opportunities Fund, while the Creative Partnerships scheme extensively pilots arts education projects in designated regions throughout England.

  An important issue in dance education is the lack of availability of high quality dance experiences and training for young people interested in dance as a career. Young people should ideally have access to a range of opportunities within their secondary school and the wider community in order to support their vocational aspirations—attendance at after schools clubs, membership of a youth dance company or training at a private dance school are some examples. However, extra-curricular opportunities such as these remain reliant on geographical location and parental income—in many areas the only access to technical training is within private dance schools. Unfortunately private dance schools rarely offer either contemporary classes or culturally diverse experiences to their pupils. Existing good practice shows that partnerships between schools and community dance practitioners, professional artists or youth dance leaders enable many young people to develop their skills and interest in dance. However, the limited number of specialist dance teachers working in secondary schools means that many young people do not have access to the information necessary to make informed choices about progression into further education and training in dance.


KEY ISSUE I—THE PLACE OF DANCE IN THE CURRICULUM

  As dance emerged as a subject in schools in the 1950s, it was most commonly located within Physical Education departments. During the 1970s, the notion of dance as an art form evolved as a rationale for dance in education. This was underpinned by a conceptual framework that dance should include an inter-related practical and theoretical study of performance, composition and appreciation. Subsequently, in an increasing number of schools, dance was located within performing arts departments, or in some schools, to stand as a subject in its own right. This shift was emphasised by the increasing availability of dance examination courses, ie Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE), O Level Dance and A Level Dance. However, following the Education Reform Act (1988) the decision was taken that for the purposes of the National Curriculum, dance would be placed within PE.

  Although currently dance is included as part of PE within the National Curriculum, it still exists in its own right as an examination subject for GSCE, AS/A Level and BTEC and also, as an area of study within a range of performing arts examination courses.

  Therefore in practice, dance remains located within different curriculum areas—as part of PE, as part of performing arts or as a subject in its own right, depending on the school. This, together with the increasing availability of opportunities to study or train in dance beyond formal education means that dance is delivered by teachers with a wide variety of training, experience and interests.

  However, as dance is currently placed within Physical Education in the National Curriculum, it is governed by a rationale and conceptual framework that applies to a diverse range of sports and other physical activities.

  A major issue with both the rationale and the framework, is that the three strands of composing, performing and appreciating underpinning the conceptual framework for learning and teaching in dance are not given sufficient prominence within the current National Curriculum for PE. The PE model, with its emphasis on skills, does not make explicit the nature of dance as a creative, imaginative activity. In particular, it fails to address the essential aspect of appreciation, which is far wider than the notion of evaluation as used within the National Curriculum for PE, nor does it place sufficient emphasis on the pupil as a creative artist.

  An anomaly exists in that the composition, performance and appreciation model identified within the GCSE, AS/A2 Dance specifications is not clearly seen in the KS1, KS2, KS3 and KS4 National Curriculum for PE.

  The NACCCE Report recognised that whilst placing dance within PE had ensured its place in schools, the National Curriculum fails to acknowledge the artistic, cultural and creative dimensions of dance as an art form:

    "The position of dance within Physical Education has provided short-term security for the discipline, but long term lack of teachers and too little emphasis on the artistic nature of dance" (NACCCE 1999, p 181).

  The report, "Arts Education in Secondary Schools: Effects and Effectiveness" further supports this view, stating that if the arts are to be fully effective in schools and available to all pupils, ALL the art forms should be provided in the school curriculum. It states further that:

    ". . . in recognition of their contribution beyond that of PE and English, dance and drama should be given comparable status in the National Curriculum to that of art and music." (National Foundation for Educational Research, 2000, summary p 10).

  Both reports question the place of dance in schools and challenge the current hierarchical situation within the National Curriculum where dance and drama have no distinct identity. This is an issue however that has been avoided by many in the dance and PE sectors as it challenges a relationship which has existed for over 50 years. It remains a concern as the government is currently seeking to develop creative teaching and the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) is in the process of reviewing arts education.

  Dance is fundamentally different from other aspects of PE. Outside school, it is viewed and provided for as one of the arts and is firmly located culturally with the other art forms.

  In 1999, the NDTA suggested that the rationale for dance within the school curriculum should be:

    "a distinctive area of experience providing the opportunity to use movement symbolically as a means of expression within a variety of cultural, aesthetic and artistic contexts" (NDTA response to the consultation on the review of the National Curriculum in England, 1999).

  This reads very differently from the rationale for PE in Curriculum 2000:

    "Physical education develops pupils' physical competence and confidence, and their ability to use these to perform in a range of activities. It promotes physical skilfulness, physical development and a knowledge of the body in action." (Department for Education and Employment (DfEE)).

  Since its inception NDTA policy has always been to support the teaching of dance, wherever it is situated within the organisational structure of individual schools—as part of a PE department, within creative/ performing/expressive arts faculties or in a separate department. The NDTA has actively maintained and developed links with both physical education and arts organisations in order to promote high quality learning and teaching in dance. However, the NDTA consistently argues that it is the study of dance as an art form that offers the greatest potential for the artistic, aesthetic, cultural, social and physical education of young people. Dance, as an art form, has its own language, body of knowledge and understanding, distinct from that of PE and as such would be better placed outside of the PE curriculum.

  In 1998, when the NDTA surveyed its members on their opinion of the then National Curriculum for England, the majority strongly supported the following statement

    "The organisation of the school curriculum and the deployment of staff should facilitate the teaching of dance as an arts subject".

  In 2002, the NDTA surveyed its members again to gauge their opinion about a number of issues concerning dance in the curriculum. The results of this survey are given in Appendix C. They clearly show that many teachers in schools are dissatisfied with the current conceptual framework for Physical Education in the National Curriculum, as it does not sufficiently cater for the specific needs of dance. The following points were made:

    —  The terminology used in the National Curriculum for PE 2000 is not specific enough for learning and teaching in dance.

    —  Continuity and progression in the three strands of composing, performing and appreciating is inadequate within the programmes of study.

    —  Appreciation is inadequately identified within the skills, knowledge and understanding strands of the curriculum for each key stage.

  The NDTA believes that in the future it is vital that:

    —  Dance gains recognition as a distinct area of experience within the National Curriculum for pupils at KS1, KS2 & KS3 with optional accredited courses at KS4 and beyond.

    —  The rationale for dance recognises the creative and artistic nature of dance with programmes of study that endorse the teaching of dance as an arts subject, underpinned by a conceptual framework based on creating, performing and appreciating dance.

    —  The cultural dimension of learning and teaching in dance is strengthened.

  The NDTA is working to:

    —  Ensure that schools guarantee an entitlement to dance within either a creative/performing/expressive arts faculty or the PE department.

    —  Support the teaching of dance wherever it exists.

    —  Encourage links between dance and the other arts subjects in schools.

    —  Encourage links between schools and professional dance artists.

  Any changes that occur within the curriculum must ensure that the positive features linking dance and physical education are retained whilst ensuring that the subject can develop its own identity. If dance were to be placed within an arts curriculum, it would be important not to lose the excellent teaching that currently takes place within many PE departments. However, the NDTA encourages a situation where dance is part of an arts curriculum taught by specialist dance teachers or teachers whose subject specialism includes dance (eg PE/dance or dance/drama). The priority must be a secure future for high quality learning and teaching for dance education in our schools.


KEY ISSUE II—SHORTAGE OF DANCE TEACHERS

  High quality dance provision in schools inevitably rests on the availability of well-trained and motivated teachers. Currently the number of specialist teachers is failing to meet an ever-increasing demand. In addition to this many of those available do not have the appropriate level of skills.

  Previous sections in this paper have identified ways in which opportunities for dance have developed in recent years within both primary and secondary schools and further education. Unfortunately, both initial teacher training and CPD have been unable to meet the increasing need for more skilled dance teachers in all phases of education. If not addressed, this will have serious implications for the success of the many initiatives currently being developed in schools as well as the standard of learning and teaching in dance across the whole sector.

  At primary level, where teachers are required to teach across the whole curriculum, the central issue is common to many subjects; there is inadequate time within initial teacher training courses to develop the level of knowledge required to teach a subject effectively. The need to expand CPD is essential, especially given that new teachers are required to identify such needs in their career entry and development profile.

  The position is different in secondary education as subject specialist teachers are trained through a number of routes. It is evident however, that there are insufficient well-trained secondary dance teachers to meet the current and future demand. Although, difficult to determine the extent of the shortage because information concerning dance as distinct from that regarding PE, is not readily available, the number of schools reporting problems regarding the appointment of suitably qualified dance teachers indicates that it is an issue. The NDTA is also aware that some schools appoint teachers with very little dance expertise in posts requiring a dance specialist because they are unable to make appropriate appointments.

  Over the last year the NDTA has undertaken a targeted survey of secondary head teachers seeking to appoint specialist dance teachers. The following comments are representative:

    "for us this was a crucial appointment. It was an excellent opportunity for an experienced teacher—a Performing Arts College in central Manchester with a new studio and theatre. I was very disappointed with the field—a lack of interviewable and appointable staff"

    "very small field"

    "Our specialist school starting September 2003 is dependent on this appointment. We are as concerned as you are. Any advice would be welcome"

    "I am very surprised we had not a single suitable applicant. We are an Artsmark gold school with good level of performing arts work and commitment to this area"

  In recent years, there have been an increasing number of professional dancers, without qualified teacher status, employed in schools and colleges to teach examination courses either to save money or because of the shortage of dance teachers with qualified teacher status.

  In the past, many PE teachers received high quality teacher training in dance and many became notable leaders in the profession. However, changes in initial teacher training during the last 10 to 15 years have led to the decline in the number of PE teachers with a dance specialism. The time available for dance within PE courses has been reduced to such an extent that many students only experience between 10 and 20 hours of training and this is clearly inadequate. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of appropriate CPD opportunities that enable newly qualified teachers to meet the demands of teaching dance at KS3 and beyond.

  Until September 2002 training for specialist dance in secondary schools had two main routes:

    —  Dance as part of PE PGCE or BA (QTS) courses.

    —  Specialist dance route on one of TWO existing courses at De Montfort University (Bedford) and the University of Brighton.

  In the academic year 2002-03 there was a growth in the number of dance teachers training within specialist Post Graduate Course in Education (PGCE), through the development of two new courses:

    —  Exeter University: PGCE (Dance).

    —  Royal Academy of Dance: Professional Graduate Certificate in Dance Teaching (14-19 years age range).

  Additionally, from the academic year 2003-04 Middlesex University have offered a PGCE in Dance and Liverpool Hope University have offered a PGCE in Performing Arts.

  It should be noted that there are no PGCE Dance courses available in either Scotland or Wales.

  The development of new courses is encouraging, as those at De Montfort (Bedford) and Brighton have been oversubscribed and have an excellent record of students finding work following completion of their course.

  It should also be noted that a number of previously unqualified secondary dance teachers are gaining Qualified Teacher Status through the Graduate Training Scheme. While this is a welcome development, the NDTA is concerned that many of the trainees involved in the scheme do not have any subject specific support as often they are working within schools without specialist dance staff.

  In order to ensure that dance in schools develops and grows as a subject, it is vital that more teachers are trained to teach dance.

  For KS1 and KS2, the NDTA will work to ensure that the most is made of the opportunity provided by the new Initial Teacher Training Standards to prepare primary teachers more effectively for dance as it is placed within both Performing Arts and PE.

  For KS3/4 and post 16 courses, there is a need for dance teachers with a variety of skills to cater for differing demands. In some schools, where dance is only taught at KS3 teachers who combine dance with other subjects such as PE, English or drama may be adequately equipped to deliver the curriculum. However, there is a growing demand for a greater depth of specialist skills, knowledge and understanding where schools and colleges offer dance throughout the Key Stages and at examination level.

  The NDTA believes that:

    —  Initial Teacher Training in Physical Education courses need to ensure that students receive sufficient training within all six activity areas including dance.

    —  There need to be increased opportunities for dance and performing arts graduates to train as teachers of dance.

    —  The government is eager to recruit more talented young people into teaching and the time is right to create a clearly signposted route into a career as a teacher for the many young people who complete undergraduate courses in dance and performing arts.

KEY ISSUE III—CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD)

  The shortage of dance teachers in school has been identified in the previous section. While training more specialist teachers is clearly essential, supporting and developing the skills of those already in schools is vital.

  Inadequate initial training means that many teachers, at both primary and secondary levels, do not feel well prepared to teach dance as they have limited personal dance skills and/or limited understanding of how to structure dance experiences that include the three strands of dance education: performing, composing and appreciating.

  Further pressure is put on teachers as the new initiatives encouraging creativity and stronger arts education in schools demand the development of new skills. Teachers are now required to manage creative partnerships with arts agencies and community groups and to develop after-school provision in addition to developing effective teaching and learning in dance.

  The NDTA is aware that schools and colleges struggle to find dance teachers, and that middle and senior management roles in performing, expressive or creative arts departments rarely request dance as the subject specialism.

  Currently, CPD provision for dance around the country is variable in quality and outcome. A number of dance agencies provide in-service training (INSET) on a national basis, mostly, but not entirely, for KS3/4 and examination courses. They include: National Resource Centre for Dance, University of Surrey, Sadler's Wells Theatre, Laban, National Dance Teachers' Association and the private educational course agencies. At local level, CPD is run by local education authorities. In primary education the TOP Dance initiative has proved effective.

  NDTA believes that a national strategy for CPD in dance be flexible to the needs expressed by teachers and should focus on two strands:

    —  To equip those with limited dance skills to teach dance more confidently and to a higher standard in both primary and secondary phases.

    —  To support those with dance training to develop their practice and be able to teach dance to a higher level, for example examination courses, and take on roles with greater responsibility.

  It is also necessary to train dance artists to work in education. While the role of the teacher is pivotal in the delivery of education, there is now an understanding that professionals with different skills and backgrounds can contribute to quality provision. Opportunities for artists from all the art forms to work in education are increasing, and dance artists are frequently involved in a range of school based projects and initiatives. Most of these artists will have completed a first degree in dance and many will have undertaken some education/community courses during their training. However, additional training is still needed to enable them to understand the specific needs of schools and to develop the skills required for effective teaching.

LOOKING AHEAD: NDTA ENTITLEMENT STATEMENT

  The NDTA believes that a balanced creative and cultural education includes access to a range of creative activities so that young people can learn about and experience the different approaches and skills distinctive to each art form or creative activity. However, it is evident that access to a coherent dance provision throughout a child's school career is rare, and boys taught in single sex schools may not be offered dance at all. The omission of dance from the secondary school curriculum for many pupils results in an absence of the physical creativity that is unique to dance. This reduces their educational experience and their access to possible career progression into higher education and the arts and entertainment industry.

  The NDTA proposes that:

  All young people are entitled to a dance education:

    —  that ensures opportunity for them to develop their knowledge, skills and understanding in a variety of dance forms;

    —  that ensures the opportunity to compose, perform and appreciate dances;

    —  that includes experience of dances from different cultures;

    —  that enables them to recognise and understand their own cultural values, and those of others;

    —  that allows them to experience live and recorded original work by professional artists;

    —  that opens doors to employment possibilities in the arts sector; and

    —  that enables the creative use of uncommitted time in adult life, continued involvement in dance as a lifelong pursuit, and engagement in dance activities beyond formal education.

  This can only be provided by teachers who have had high quality initial teacher training, on-going support and first-rate Continuous Professional Development.

KEY REFERENCES

  Department for Culture, Media & Sport (2001) Culture & Creativity: The Next Ten Years, London, DCMS.

  Harland, J et al (2000) Arts Education in Secondary Schools: Effects and Effectiveness. Slough, National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER).

  NACCCE (1999) All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education. Suffolk, DfEE Publications.

APPENDIX A

DANCE IN THE CURRICULUM SURVEY RESULTS—2001




Key

% Agree


% Disagree
% Neither agree nor disagree


The terminology used in the PE National Curriculum 2000 is appropriate to teaching and learning in dance
2844 31
Selected comments:
    "Simple terminology, but not dance specific."
    "There needs to be a separate language—some of it can link but dance has its own inherent language."
Selected comments:
    "No, because acquiring and developing skills could relate to performing, composing and appreciating."
    "Again, due to the nature of dance, more needs to be isolated out of generic sentences."
    "Appreciation is missing or there by intelligent surmise, not even implication."
Continuity and progression in composing, performing and appreciating needs strengthening between and across the Key Stages 81  9 10
Selected comments:
    "Progression/content/detail unclear or inconsistent."
    "All three should be part of KS1 and developed throughout."
    "KS4 does little to identify the analytical understanding and appreciation of dance."
The Level Descriptions for PE do not make sufficient reference to the levels of pupils' artistic, aesthetic and cultural learning in and through dance 8210   8
Selected comments:
    "Too vague."
    "Not always appropriate dance language."
The QCA Schemes of Work for Dance offer helpful and appropriate guidelines for teaching 3229 39
Selected comments:
    "I have not seen the QCA Schemes of Work for dance."
    "At primary level, they give sufficient support to non-specialist. At secondary level I feel they are a bit broad for some non-specialists."
    "Teachers seem to think that they should follow schemes of work even if they are not appropriate."
Selected comments:
    "Need to strengthen links between Key Stages."
    "More training needed for these teachers."
Dance at KS3 should be a compulsory activity on the curriculum 85 11
Selected comments:
    "Imperative as preparation for GCSE, but also to complement the curriculum as a whole and promote pupil development."
    "Not necessarily compulsory—only if they are taught by someone who is enthusiastic and knows what they are doing."
    "Debatable—is bad delivery better than none at all?"
Dance at KS4 should be a compulsory activity on the curriculum 89 10
Selected comments:
    "By KS4 pupils should be given a choice as in any other subject. GCSE Dance is an option."
    "And on the timetable—not as an optional extra taught after school."
Dance should remain in its current position as an area of activity within the PE Programmes of Study 1663 21
Selected comments:
    "Yes if it's the only place that it fits. Not if it can be placed into an arts programme."
    "Should be part of the creative arts—it's NOT sport! Wrong profile for dance."
    "Only because it safeguards its existence."
Dance would be better placed within a statutory Arts or Performing Arts curriculum than an activity area within Physical Education 805 15
Selected comments:
    "Dance outside of school is not considered to be PE—it is an art form."
    "Flexibility as to where it takes place may be advantageous in some instances."
    "In an ideal world."
    "If it were, I think even less schools would take it on board."





APPENDIX B

INFORMATION ON DANCE EDUCATION IN SCOTLAND

  Scottish Office Education Department: National Guidelines for Expressive Arts 5-14; Edinburgh, HMSO (Physical Education comes within the Expressive Arts, and dance is found within the PE guidelines)

PROGRAMMES IN DANCE IN SCOTLAND

  National Certificates (NC)

  National Certificate Dance (Dundee College/Scottish School of Contemporary Dance)

  National Certificate Dance (Edinburgh's Telford College)

  Higher National Certificates (HNC)

  Contemporary Dance Performance (Dundee College/Scottish School of Contemporary Dance)

  Dance (Community) (Anniesland College)

  Higher National Diploma (HND)

  Contemporary Dance Performance (Dundee College/Scottish School of Contemporary Dance)

  Dance Artists in the Community (Anniesland College)

  Dance Artists in the Community (Edinburgh's Telford College)

  Professional Stage Dance (Edinburgh's Telford College)

  BA (Hons) in Dance as a Performing Art (Edinburgh's Telford College)

SOME EXAMPLES OF DANCE IN INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING (PRIMARY)

Edinburgh University

  Number of hours devoted to dance during the course and nature of content:

  B Ed Primary Year 2 (two hours)—creative dance

  B Ed Primary Year 3 (eight hours)—creative dance/choreography

  PGCE Primary (eight hours)—Scottish Country Dance and creative dance

  Dance is placed within the PE curriculum and students cannot specialise in dance.

Glasgow University

  Number of hours devoted to dance during the course and nature of content:

  B Ed Primary—Every student receives eight hours creative dance, two hours Scottish Country Dance and two hours Folk Dance. Students who opt to do PE as part of the Expressive Arts option (approximately 25% of year group) will cover six additional hours of creative dance and three hours social dance

  PGCE Primary (two hours)—Scottish Country Dance, Folk Dance and creative dance

  Focus is on content and methodology for the teaching of each area of dance. Dance is covered under the PE curriculum.

Dundee University

  Number of hours devoted to dance during the course and nature of content:

  B Ed Primary Year 1 (six hours)—shared between games, gymnastics, dance and athletics; in dance cover expressive/creative dance, ethnic and Scottish Country Dance

  B Ed Primary Year 2—two workshops of three hours each for dance—upper primary expressive/creative music and dance combined

  B Ed Primary Year 3 (six to seven hours)—Early years expressive/creative music and dance combined

  B Ed Primary Year 4—none

  Dance is placed within the PE curriculum but do teach music and dance combined.

  (provided by NDTA Regional Representative Sue Oliver)

APPENDIX C

NDTA EXECUTIVE MEMBERS 2003-04


Chair
Veronica Jobbins, Head of Professional Studies, Laban, London
Vice ChairCarolyn Woolridge, Acting Vice Principal Academic, Northern School of Contemporary Dance, Leeds
TreasurerMelanie Knott, Dance Teacher and Consultant, Leicestershire
SecretaryJudy Evans, PE, Dance & Arts Education Consultant, Berkshire
Committee MembersPenny Perrett, AST Dance, Bishop Perowne CE High School & Arts College, Worcester
Claire Turnbull, Dance Teacher, Dame Allan's Girls' School, Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Stacie Hooks, Director of Arts College, The Lindsey School & Community Arts College, Grimsby
Clare Mellish, Adviser for Teaching & Learning—Dance, Hertfordshire School Improvement and Advisory Service
Julie Leach, Dance Education Consultant, Worcestershire
Fiona Smith, Route Leader PGCE Dance, Chelsea School, University of Brighton, East Sussex
Lucy Pocknell, AST & Manager for Dance, Davison High School, Worthing
Alison Saridogan, Senior Lecturer in Dance, University of Greenwich, London
Co-opted MembersJennifer Hatton, Advisory Teacher for Dance, Wigan
John Auty, Head of Arts Support Service, Nottinghamshire LEA
Amanda Burrows, Dance Education Consultant, Nottinghamshire
Executive TraineesYvette Jarvis, Teacher i/c Dance, St Angela's Ursuline School, London
Stephen Mason, Freelance Dance Artist
Gill Callaghan, Curriculum Support Teacher for Dance, Staffordshire LEA
Suzanne Priest, Director of Dance, the BRIT School of Performing Arts, Croydon
Rachael Jefferson-Buchanan, Lecturer in PE, Dance & Primary Professional Practice, Bath Spa University College
Dance MattersMartin Hargreaves, Editor, Dance Matters, Laban, London
Sue Cottam, Assistant Editor, Dance Matters, Freelance, Dorset

May 2004





 
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