Select Committee on Work and Pensions Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence


APPENDIX 7

Memorandum submitted by the National Council for One Parent Families (OP 14)

SUMMARY

  National Council for One Parent Families (NCOPF) supports the concept, piloted through ONE, of offering a face-to-face service and tailored support through Personal Adviser Meetings, although we are concerned at the element of compulsion. The evaluation of ONE Service Pilots provides valuable information about what does and doesn't work in helping lone parents overcome barriers to work. While evaluation suggests ONE helped some lone parents move into the right job more quickly than they would have done otherwise, it has been less effective at helping those who do not consider work to be an option at present.

NCOPF'S RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOBCENTRE PLUS INCLUDE:

    —  Lone parents should see a specialist Personal Adviser as early as possible in the process. Given the importance of the effectiveness of the Personal Adviser, every effort must be made to ensure the quality is kept high.

    —  Priority must be given to ensuring efficient processing of claims. High quality advice is also important to maximise take-up of social security benefits, to raise awareness of financial support available to lone parents moving into work and to raise awareness of help available through the New Deal for Lone Parents (NDLP), such as the "Choices" package.

    —  The objective must be to ensure that when lone parents are ready to work, they are able to find sustainable employment at reasonable levels of pay. For this reason, there should be an increased emphasis on providing advice and information on education and training opportunities, particularly for those lone parents who do not feel work is an immediate option.

    —  Nearly half of lone parents (43 per cent) who were looking for work in ONE pilot areas, felt there were not enough job opportunities locally. Recent Government initiatives such as Ambition IT, aim to provide New Deal participants with training and work-experience, in some cases matching participants with specific employers who are expected to provide a permanent job at the end of the training period. More of such schemes, tailored to their needs, could help ensure lone parents are able to access sustainable employment.

    —  The service must go further in meeting the needs of lone parents who do not expect to return to work in the near future, including some lone parents for whom illness and disability are additional barriers to work. In order to ensure the service is able to meet the needs of all lone parents, a number of factors need to be in place. A holistic approach needs to be taken to identifying barriers to work and looking at ways of overcoming them. Investigation needs to be made of appropriate steps on the ladder to full-time work (such as education and training) and there needs to be increased use of referrals to outside agencies able to provide help with specific issues.

    —  Efforts must be made to ensure lone parents are given accurate advice and information on child support, particularly as regards their right to opt out of the process.

    —  Beyond the scope of the service provided by Jobcentre Plus, some substantial barriers to work remain to be addressed. For example, significant failings in housing benefit administration are a major disincentive and need to be tackled urgently. Availability of suitable, affordable childcare also continues to be an issue.

  1.  Jobcentre Plus was launched on 22 October 2001 in 50 pathfinder areas. Bringing together the Employment Service (ES) and Benefits Agency (BA), Jobcentre Plus aims to provide a higher quality of service, with a focus on work for those who can. As a forerunner to this, the "ONE Service", piloted work-focused interviews (compulsory from April 2000) and brought ES, BA and local authorities together in a single point of contact for the first time. At the same time, compulsory Personal Adviser Meetings are being phased-in nationwide for lone parents on income support.

  2.  NCOPF supports the concept of Personal Adviser Meetings, although we are concerned about the element of compulsion. Our view is that lone parents want to work where their circumstances make it possible to combine this with the demands of being the sole full-time parent. Since the problem is rarely one of disinclination, the best way to increase lone parents' participation in the labour force is to help them overcome these barriers. In this submission we aim to set out how the service provided by Jobcentre Plus can help to deliver this. Concerns about ONE have not so far emerged as a major issue on our Maintenance and Money Line. However, the evaluation of both ONE and the New Deal for Lone Parents (NDLP) are a valuable source of information on what has worked so far.

LONE PARENTS AND PAID WORK

  3.  The Government has set a target of 70 per cent of lone parents in paid work by 2010. Over half of all lone parents (51 per cent) are now in paid work. 50 per cent of lone mothers are now in paid work compared to 44 per cent in 1997[2]. The number of lone parents on income support has fallen from over 1 million in 1997 to 895,000 in February 2001.[3]

  4.  The Governments strategy for increasing lone parent employment includes measures to make work pay (such as the working families' tax credit and the national minimum wage), to remove barriers to work (such as the national childcare strategy) and provision of information, advice and support, for example, through the New Deal for Lone Parents.

ATTITUDES TO WORK

  5.  Ninety per cent of lone parents are either working now or want to work in the future.[4] When asked, they express a strong orientation towards paid work. Only a very small number positively do not want to work. As well as being a way to "make ends meet", paid work is valued for other reasons—personal identity, social contact and as an example for their children.[5] Lone parents differ in their views on work and parenting: some are committed to being the primary child-carer, at least for a time, while others, such as black lone mothers, more often see paid work as the best way to provide for their families.[6]

BARRIERS TO WORK

  6.  Although 90 per cent of lone parents say they would like to enter paid work at some point, this does not mean that they are ready to work straight away. Nearly four in 10 are already working 16 hours or more a week, two in 10 work a few hours or are ready to work, three in 10 will work one day and one in 10 may never be able to work.[7] The main constraints identified by lone parents as preventing them from taking paid work are: the cost of childcare (23 per cent); its availability (16 per cent); not wanting to spend time away from children (27 per cent); long-standing illness or disability (35 per cent) and health problems among children (35 per cent). Lone parents actually looking for work were most likely to identify the cost and availability of childcare as the key constraint on work. For those lone parents expecting to work in the future, the main concerns were not spending time away from their children (34 per cent), the cost of childcare (28 per cent) and its availability (19 per cent). In contrast, half of the lone parents who did not expect to work in the future said their illness or disability prevented them and six per cent said it was their children's health problems.

  7.  The ONE evaluation[8] found that 43 per cent of lone parents who were looking for work in the ONE pilot areas thought there were not enough job opportunities locally. The researchers commented that "this is an important finding since it locates a large portion of their problems with work in the nature of the labour market itself rather than in problems of childcare or personal efficacy". Only 9 per cent expressed no concerns at all. A significant number also had financial concerns about moving into work (27 per cent were concerned about managing financially in work and 21 per cent worried about meeting housing costs). More than half (55 per cent) felt their confidence was low and 31 per cent thought they did not have enough experience or qualifications.

  8.  Jobcentre Plus has potential to address some of these issues, particularly through the advice and referral service provided by Personal Advisers. In order to identify how it can do this most effectively, we start by setting out how Personal Adviser Meetings are to work under Jobcentre Plus and what can be learnt from the experience of the ONE pilots.

THE WORK-FOCUSSED INTERVIEW PROCESS WITH JOBCENTRE PLUS

  9.  New claimants of social security benefits in Jobcentre Plus pathfinder areas are required to attend a compulsory work-focused interview with a Personal Adviser. There is an initial start-up interview, conducted over the phone, where personal details are taken, the appropriate claim forms issued and an appointment made with a Personal Adviser.[9] A lone parent arriving for a Personal Adviser Meeting should first be seen by a benefits expert who will check their claim form has been fully completed and that they have brought the relevant documents. The Personal Adviser's role is then to:

    —  discuss their personal circumstances and ambitions;

    —  agree what can be done to move the claimant towards work;

    —  refer, where appropriate, to more specialist organisations who can provide specific help (such as with healthcare and training);

    —  give advice as to how much better-off the person will be in work;

    —  act as the routeway into New Deal programmes.

  10.  At the end of the interview, the customer should be given as much certainty as possible about what benefit they will receive and when, or what needs to happen next to process their claim. Further meetings with Personal Advisers can then be arranged and claimants should be encouraged to use the services of a personal adviser on a regular basis. This is similar to the ONE service, except that there is an enhanced role for a "benefits expert", allowing the Personal Adviser to concentrate more on work.

LESSONS FROM THE ONE EVALUATION

Helping lone parents move into work?

  11.    Evaluation of ONE found that a range of factors need to be in place for personal advisers to be able to have a direct impact on movements into work.[10] The participant needs to be work-focused, looking for a specific job and there needs to be a vacancy in the area which the Personal Adviser identifies and helps to get details about. In particular, this applied to lone mothers aged under-35 who wanted part-time work. If the participant was work-focused and had identified a range of interests, the Personal Adviser could help indirectly by identifying more specific opportunities. These conditions increased participants' motivation to find work and their potential to be in the right work more quickly than they would be otherwise.

  12.  Discussing the transitional stages between claiming benefit and working full-time (training, voluntary work, part-time work or working flexible hours, for example) was beneficial to some participants who did not see work as an immediate option. The positive effects of ONE included:[11]

    —  facilitating movement into work for those who consider it to be an immediate priority;

    —  enabling participants to progress towards work by providing support with benefits claims; and

    —  raising work as a realistic goal when participants did not consider it to be an option at all.

  13.  However, ONE did not change the attitudes of all participants. This included those who knew what job they wanted and how to access it. In particular, participants with post 16 qualifications or established career histories felt ONE did not offer them any new information or support, although they would have welcomed this. It also had a limited impact on participants who did not feel work was an option. For some lone parents, discussions concerning interests allowed the PA to suggest training opportunities. However, these were the exception.

  14.  The evaluation found that four months after the PA meeting, a greater proportion of lone parents in pilot areas compared to control areas were in work or looking for work.[12] Six months after that, however, this positive effect was no longer evident. The researchers commented that "it may be that this is simply how ONE works for lone parents. It hastens into work those already inclined to enter work and raises the interest among those already inclined to look."

A better benefits service?

  15.  ONE participants are generally found to be positive about the concept of having a Personal Adviser, the face-to-face contact and the one-stop-shop element of the service. The service generally has a positive reception. Lone parents who participated in ONE (when this was voluntary) were twice as likely as those who did not to consider they had been treated "very well" (42 per cent compared to 20 per cent) and to feel they had been treated as an individual.[13] The ONE office environment also made participants feel welcome.

  16.  The provision of better-off calculations by Personal Advisers seems to have been helpful. Lone parent ONE participants were more aware than non-participants of the existence of working families' tax credit.[14] Lone parent participants who received a better-off calculation, advice about in-work benefits or about childcare arrangements were more likely to be in work than those who did not.[15] Receiving advice about jobs, on the other hand, was not a significant predicator of being in work.

  17.  However, there were some concerns, particularly around delays in being seen and the impact this has on benefit receipt.[16] Some concerns seem to stem from the fact that the ONE principles were not really coming through in practice. Clients did not see "their" Personal Adviser, or could not be sure they would be available on the phone, help was limited and the follow up was not always available.

What factors make Personal Adviser Meetings effective?

  18.  Evaluation of the first effects of ONE found that the skills of the adviser and the quality of interaction were key to a good experience of ONE.[17] When an effective relationship was established at initial Personal Advisers Meetings and advice was tailored to personal circumstances, this bolstered self-confidence in taking forward suggestions and confidence in the service. Participants appreciated Personal Advisers who were able to establish a dialogue, or gave them the space to talk about their claim and their immediate and longer-term aspirations. In particular, lone parents who are unclear about their next step towards work appreciate being able to discuss the issue in an open-ended fashion.[18] Matching the personal characteristics of the participant and Personal Adviser (such as gender, age and ethnic group) were important factors in participants' experiences.[19] Personal Advisers were able to give more focussed advice on jobsearch when they were familiar with the applicant's goals and circumstances. Participants were supportive of advisers but felt they needed more training and support.

  19.  Participants reacted negatively when the Personal Adviser did not engage in dialogue, explore interests or work options or offer practical help with current circumstances.[20] They also reacted negatively when what they felt were inappropriate jobs were suggested.[21] They found it counter-productive if Personal Advisers focused too narrowly on work and overlooked real problems in the transition. Those participants who felt that they had not discussed their claim in significant detail, or who had experienced difficulties with their claim, were inclined to feel less self-confident in looking for work. This was either because they did not know where they stood, or because they felt disregarded and did not really trust any work-focused advice they were given.

A gap between policy vision and practice?

  20.  Demands on Personal Advisers are high. They are expected to identify barriers to work, agree what can be done to move the person towards work, refer to organisations which can provide specific help, advise a person as to whether they will be better off in work and act as a routeway into the New Deal progammes. However, evaluation indicates that the "ONE vision" is not always what is delivered in practice.

  21.  When ONE was explained to participants, they expressed support for the principle of a one-to-one service, tailored to individual needs and the idea of having someone to talk to and go back to.[22] However, many had difficulty equating the service they received with ONE as explained to them by the researchers. Staff, although committed to the ONE vision of a client-focused, work-focused service, felt frustrated that it is difficult to realise the vision in practice.[23] Factors contributing to this appear to have included time pressures and inadequate training. The vast majority of staff felt the training had been inadequate and in some cases untimely.

  22.  Shortcomings of ONE in practice included the following:

    —  There was a sense of time pressure in Personal Adviser Meetings. There was some exploration of clients' immediate circumstances, but generally interchange was minimal.

    —  A limited amount of time was spent on case-loading (additional voluntary meetings to further explore work prospects and ways of overcoming barriers to work). Only some clients were actually able to see the same Personal Adviser in successive meetings.

    —  There was a lack of links with, knowledge about and referral to external agencies that could help with specific needs. (There was also no evidence that ONE participants were more likely to have been referred into supported employment or voluntary work.[24])

    —  Interactions were process driven with minimum attention to barriers to employment and complexities of personal circumstances. Generally, Personal Advisers did not help identify barriers to work but provided a reactive service to barriers identified by claimants.[25] Those participants who identified barriers were offered a range of advice and support which was generally considered appropriate.

    —  There was wide variation in the deferment of interviews for people who were sick or carers. Personal Adviser Meetings were almost universally deferred in the case of the recently bereaved.

    —  ONE was not making inroads with the "harder to place" groups. Generally, Personal Advisers neither had the time that proper case-loading would require nor the ability (training, knowledge) to consistently make the types of referrals that would really impact on those participants who did not expect to work in the near future.

    —  Many advisers found it difficult to talk about sensitive issues with clients. They did not necessarily have the skills required to uncover and address fundamental client characteristics, such as mental illness, literacy or numeracy problems, social skills confidence or motivational issues—nor was it clear to staff what they should be doing if they did identify such issues.

Recommendations for the Future

  23.  The introduction of Jobcentre Plus is an opportunity to address some of these issues. Our suggestions for the way forward are as follows.

  24.  Lone parents should see a specialist lone parent adviser as early as possible in the process. NCOPF strongly supports the view expressed by the New Deal Task Force Group on lone parents that the model of the specialist personal adviser is the most important single element of the NDLP programme.[26] Evaluation found that referrals by ONE Personal Advisers to NDLP were effective because lone parents felt they accessed more information, although it did confuse them as to the main point of contact. For this reason, NCOPF the emphasis should be on lone parents seeing a specialist adviser where possible.

  25.  Given the importance of the effectiveness of the Personal Adviser, every effort must be made to ensure the quality is kept high. Evaluation of both NDLP and ONE has consistently shown that the effectiveness of the Personal Adviser and the relationship they are able to establish with the lone parent are key to the success of the programme. Personal Advisers need to have effective interviewing skills and be able to take a holistic approach. This may be particularly important for those who do not know when they will work.

  26.  Priority must be given to ensuring efficient processing of claims. High quality advice is also important to maximise take-up of social security benefits and to raise awareness of financial support available to lone parents moving into work and the substantial help available through NDLP, such as the "Choices" package. The evaluation shows clearly that sorting the benefit claim out efficiently is essential if lone parents are to be able to move on to other options. The immediate concern of ONE participants, is the resolution of their benefit claim.[27] For this reason, it was a universal experience that getting the benefit-related tasks out of the way in a professional and effective manner created the platform for any work related intervention.[28] A more efficient benefits service helps provide the financial security and confidence lone parents need in order to plan for the future. Although ONE appears so far to have a limited impact on those who did not consider work to be an immediate option, it has potential to help by ensuring people have financial security during a period of uncertainty or disruption (for example, following relationship breakdown).

  27.  Provision of high quality advice on in-work and back-to-work benefits is also crucial. The preferred method is for an initial hypothetical example to be followed by the offer of specific calculations for particular vacancies of interest.[29] Concerns about managing financially in the transition to work need to be addressed to enable more lone parents to feel confident about taking paid work. Despite personal adviser meetings and the availability of schemes such as the "lone parent benefit run-on", a sizable proportion of lone parents still had concerns about managing financially until the first pay day (36 per cent).[30] 29 per cent were concerned about managing financially in-work and meeting housing costs. It may be the case that Jobcentre Plus needs to work harder to get the message across on these issues. However, further substantial changes may also be needed. NCOPF supports the recommendation of the New Deal Task Force Group on lone parents that the level of financial support in the transition to work should be reviewed when evidence is available.[31]

  28.  Maximising take-up of out of work benefits is important. Personal advisers also have a role to play in raising awareness of the "Choices" package recently introduced into NDLP. This includes a training premium of £15 and help with childcare costs for lone parents working part-time on income support.

  29.  The objective must be to ensure that when lone parents are ready to work, they are able to find sustainable employment at reasonable levels of pay. For this reason, there should be an increased emphasis on providing advice and information on education and training opportunities, particularly for those lone parents who do not feel work is an immediate option. Analysing the impact of the New Deal on lone parents, Jane Millar concluded that the issue of the balance between short-term and long-term outcomes, between jobs and training has not yet been clearly resolved. "As the scheme has developed, more emphasis has been placed on training, with additional money allocated to training, but arguably much more needs to be done to improve the earnings capacity of lone parents."[32] NCOPF believes this is the case. Educational qualifications are key to ensuring lone parents are in work, how quickly they return to work after having a child, whether they are in stable employment, whether they work full-time and how much they earn. Over a third of all lone parents and nearly half of those not in work (44 per cent) have no academic qualifications.[33] Recent training is also significant. Lone mothers who received training one year are twice as likely as those who did not to find a job in the next year.[34]

  30.  Appropriate advice on education and training opportunities can help ensure lone parents are able to access sustainable employment in the longer term (employment in which they can stay and in which there is career progression). The evaluation of ONE found that, lone parents were keen to get the "right skills" to help them into "good jobs" in the longer term.[35] Most participants who opted for education and training saw it as a stepping stone into work in the short or longer term. Education and training were not always discussed at personal adviser meetings. When researchers raised participants' awareness of education and training opportunities, many felt they had missed an opportunity. There is evidence of unmet demand for training. Although many lone parents who are not in work express an interest in training (72 per cent), few have undertaken any recently.[36]

  31.  This may be particularly important in the case of lone parents who do not feel work is an option at the present time. A recent study into women's decisions about employment and childcare found that many women who had chosen to be full-time mothers rather than work while children were very young, were interested in and took up opportunities for education or training in skills that they envisaged using in the future.[37]

  32.  Nearly half of lone parents (43 per cent) who were looking for work in ONE pilot areas, felt there were not enough job opportunities locally. Recent Government initiatives such as Ambition IT, aim to provide New Deal participants with training and work-experience, in some cases matching participants with specific employers who are expected to provide a permanent job at the end of the training period. More of such schemes, tailored to their needs, could help ensure lone parents are able to access sustainable employment locally. Compared with other New Deal schemes, the New Deal for Lone Parents is less well-resourced and has fewer options to offer.[38] Consideration should be given to deciding whether NDLP should offer more substantial options for lone parents, although careful thought would need to be given to what would be most appropriate to the needs of lone parents. One possible model is Ambition IT, launched in March 2001, to help people access the training and skills necessary to find employment in the IT industry. This sort of initiative, tailored to the needs of lone parents, could help ensure lone parents are able to access sustainable employment locally. Another possibility would be to build on some of the "innovative schemes" piloted in NDLP.[39]

  33.  The additional financial help provided through NDLP, such as help with childcare costs for lone parents working part-time while on income support, is also a positive element and should be built on.

  34.  Participation in NDLP must remain voluntary. Evaluation has shown that there is strong support for the voluntary nature of NDLP among lone parents.[40] This must be maintained. We are not aware of evidence that lone parents have been sanctioned for not attending compulsory work-focused interviews. We would be very concerned if this were the case. The situation must continue to be carefully monitored.

  35.  The service must go further in meeting the needs of lone parents who do not expect to return to work in the near future, including some lone parents for whom illness and disability are additional barriers to work. In order to ensure the service is able to meet the needs of all lone parents, a number of factors need to be in place. A holistic approach needs to be taken to identifying barriers to work and looking at ways of overcoming them. Investigation needs to be made of appropriate steps on the ladder to full-time work (such as education and training) and there needs to be increased use of referrals to outside agencies able to provide help with specific issues.

  36.  Efforts must be made to ensure lone parents are given accurate advice and information on child support, particularly as regards their right to opt out of the process. From April 2002, an application for Income Support will be an application for child support maintenance. Although lone parents will be able to "opt out", they will need to know that they can do so. It is essential that Personal Advisers are trained to be able to give accurate and appropriate advice on these issues.

  37.  Beyond the scope of the service provided by Jobcentre Plus, some substantial barriers to work remain to be addressed. For example, the New Deal Task Force Group on lone parents found that significant failings in Housing Benefit (HB) administration are a major disincentive to paid work and need to be tackled urgently if the 70 per cent target is to be met.[41] Despite improvements in recent years, the cost and availability of suitable, affordable childcare also continues to be a barrier to work. Other measures NCOPF feels are needed are set out in our briefing paper, "Lone Parents and Employment: The Facts."

Djuna Thurley
Policy and Research Officer

25 October 2001


2   Labour Force Survey, August 2001. Back

3   DSS (2001), Income Support, Quarterly Statistical Enquiry, February 2001, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, DSS. Back

4   Marsh A, McKay S, Smith A and Stephenson A (201) Low-income families in Britain: work-welfare and social security in 1999, DSS Research Report No 138, London: CDS. Back

5   Backett-Milburn et al, Caring and providing: Lone and partnered working mothers in Sctoland, (201), York, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Back

6   Duncan S and Edwards R (1999), Lone mothers and paid work: gendered moral rationalities, London: Macmillan. Back

7   Marsh A et al (2001), op cit. Back

8   Green H, et al (2000), First Effects on ONE, DSS Research Report 126, Leeds: CDS, page 107. Back

9   Department for Education and Employment (2001), Jobcentre Plus: Pathfinder Service Delivery Vision. London: DfEE. Back

10   Green H, et al (2000), op. cit Back

11   Davies, V and Johnson, C (2001), Moving towards work: the short-term impact of ONE, DSS Research Report 140, Leeds, CDS. Back

12   Green H, Connolly H, Marsh A and Bryson A (2001), The Medium-Term Effects of Voluntary Participation in ONE, DWP Research Report 149, Leeds: CDS. Back

13   Green H, et al (2000), op.cit. Back

14   Green H, et al (2000), op. cit. Back

15   Green H, et al (2001), op cit. Back

16   Kelleher J et al (2001), Delivering a Work-Focused Service: Interim Findings from the ONE Case Studies and Staff Reseach, DWP In-house Report 84, London: Department for Work and Pension, page 76. Back

17   Green H, et al (2000), op.cit. Back

18   Dawson T (2000), op.cit. page iv. Back

19   Green H, et al (2000), op. cit. Back

20   Davies, V and Johnson, C (2001), op. cit. Back

21   Green H, et al (2000), op. cit. Back

22   Green H, et al (2000), op. cit, page 183. Back

23   Kelleher J et al, op. cit. Back

24   Green H, et al (2001), op. cit. Back

25   Davies, V and Johnson, C (2001), op. cit., page 48. Back

26   New Deal Task Force Group on Lone Parents (2001), Secure Transitions, Building on the success of the New Deal for Lone Parents. Back

27   Green H, et al (2000), op. cit. Back

28   Kelleher J et al (2001), op. cit. Back

29   Dawson, T et al (2000), op. cit. Back

30   Green H, et al (2000), op. cit, page 108. Back

31   New Deal Task Force Group on Lone Parents (2001), Secure Transitions, Building on the success of the New Deal for Lone Parents. Back

32   Millar J (2000), Lone Parents and the New Deal, Policy Studies, Vol. 21, No 4, 2000. Back

33   Marsh A et al (2001), Low-income families in Britain: work, welfare and social security in 1999, DSS Research Report, No 138, London: CDS. Back

34   Iacovou M and Berthoud R (2000), Parents and Employment, Leeds: CDS. Back

35   34 Green H, et al (2000), op. cit, page 196. Back

36   Marsh A, et al (2001), op. cit. Back

37   Himmelweit, S, Women's decisions about employment and childcare, presentation to meeting of Gender Research Forum on 29 June 2001. Back

38   Millar J (2000), op. cit. Back

39   Woodfield, K and Finch, H (1999), New Deal for Lone Parents: Evaluation of Innovative Schemes, DSS Research Report, No. 89, Leeds: CDS. Back

40   Hasluck, C (2000), The New Deal for Lone Parents: A Review of Evaluation Evidence, Warwick: Institute for Employment Research. Back

41   New Deal Task Force Group (2001), Secure Transitions, Building on the success of the New Deal for Lone Parents, London: DfEE. Back


 
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