141. The next two decades are critical to establishing
an effective mitigation regime and ensuring sustainable development
is on track. Priorities in several areas have emerged from this
Significant effects are possible but much uncertainty
remains despite good monitoring programmes. Actions need to be
guided by the precautionary principle and donors and recipient
countries need to adopt flexible approaches to keep options open.
There is a need to put climate change on the agenda
of developing countries and aid agencies.
Developmental, environmental and social goals need
to recognise climate change and take account of likely impacts.
Recognising climate change offers an opportunity to adapt and
reform current sub-optimal systems using a 'no-regrets' approach.
Human and institutional capacity needs strengthening.
DFID should focus on helping developing countries to identify
their needs and to develop their own capacity to carry out analysis
and planning based on their own priorities, rather than responding
to donor fashions.
Linkages between developed and developing countries for training
and research will be helpful. Capacity should be built within
existing institutions that already have responsibilities for resources
likely to be affected by climate change. There is little need
to build separate capacity devoted solely to climate change. There
is a need for institutional capacity building at local and national
levels and the focus for capacity building work will have to be
wider than national government level. Research institutes and
NGOs can form a bridge between local action and international
policy/markets, especially in relation to building resilient communities.
But those institutions and NGOs will also have their own capacity
- Monitoring progress on climate change
Indicators on climate change, for measurement of
capacity building, and for the evaluation of the effectiveness
of DFID programmes and projects will have to be developed.
- Disasters and extreme events
The increased frequency and magnitude of extreme
events poses risks to life and health, and could lead to significant
social and macroeconomic impacts, and massive displacements of
population. Reducing vulnerability to natural disasters and extreme
events is essential.
- Promoting low carbon use and energy efficiency
Policies must be integrated, for example by linking
technology transfer, CDM, and export credits. Developing countries
lack a viable and affordable alternative energy source to fossil
fuels but they should be encouraged and helped to be as energy
and carbon efficient as possible. The opportunities to benefit
from the Clean Development Mechanism, Activities Implemented Jointly
and other mechanisms should be reviewed, enhanced and partner
organisations should be encouraged to participate in these mechanisms.
Donors and developing countries need to take steps
to ensure that climate risk is addressed in areas such as coastal
management, access to water, sustainable livelihoods, agriculture