Supplementary memorandum submitted by
the Department for International Development
What practical steps were taken following the
publication of the latest IPCC reports and what were DFID's various
divisions expected/asked to do with the information?
1. Following the publication of the Third Assessment
Report (TAR), DFID invited experts involved in the process to
give a presentation of the key points to the Environment Policy
Department and Engineering and Environment advisers. This assisted
in raising awareness and stimulating discussion on policy responses.
Many regional departments reacted to the TAR with discussion amongst
senior advisers of what the results may mean for their work. This
process is ongoing and momentum is being maintained through ongoing
dissemination of new research findings, individual meetings and
group presentations. Heads of Department requested hard copies
of the IPCC report and also a summary of key aspects for their
region/sector and suggestions for identifying ways forward. DFID
is working with DEFRA to provide accurate and useful summaries
as well as summaries of the International Process.
How is awareness of climate change and climate
risk raised with country level programme managers and development
2. Senior management Development Committee
recently received a DEFRA/DFID joint presentation on the science
of climate change, its impacts and its implications for DFID's
work. Work on integrating climate change issues into country programmes
is primarily through Environment Advisers working with advisers
on regional and national programmes. In addition, DFID is producing
an internal briefing document on climate change, which it is developing
in conjunction with all major sections within DFID, including
regional and country desks. The process of producing this document
will also help raise awareness and stimulate discussion on how
best to respond to some of the issues raised.
3. Looking more widely, DFID has commissioned
work to identify how action to reduce poverty and achieve the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is likely to be affected by
climate change. The study involves representatives from across
DFID and DEFRA. The research team will also conduct meetings with
development practitioners during the course of the study.
4. DFID is also working with a number of agencies
including the World Bank, UNDP and the EC in the preparation of
a multi-agency paper entitled: "Poverty and Climate ChangeSupporting
Poor Countries and Poor People to Cope with Climate Change."
The Paper is expected to issue around May 2003.
How does DFID link climate change with climate
5. The TAR outlines the way in which climate
change will lead not only to changing frequency and extremes of
climatic events such as flooding, hurricanes and drought, but
also to more gradual changes in key environmental and resource
based processes, such as water availability and vector borne diseases.
The climatic risks a country faces may therefore also change as
a result of climate change.
6. In order for countries to cope with climate
change, adaptation measures require information to be available
on the changing variability in climate and then the identification
of people and places most at risk. Through its funding of the
PRECIS portable regional climate model, DFID is supporting capacity
development to improve local level information and better inform
policy decisions as well as disaster preparedness. Experience
in Bangladesh shows the importance of investment in monitoring
systems in reducing the risk of displacement and death as a result
of climatic hazards
7. Planning for climate change and changing
risks requires interaction and coherence between different policy
sections, eg health, agriculture, infrastructure etc. For example,
in Ghana, DFID is working with other donors to support the Environment
Protection Agency in carrying out a Strategic Environmental Assessment
of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) to look at the links and
possible conflicts between proposed actions in health, agriculture
etc and the environment.
8. The economic costs of sea level rise, drought
etc are likely to become greater as the risk of the climatic hazard
occurring increases together with increasing population, urbanisation
and wealth. A focus upon poverty reduction creates a framework
in which resilience to environmental shocks can be built into
growth and help deliver more robust development.
What is DFID's policy on support for disaster
mitigation and preparedness work?
9. Disaster preparedness is central to reducing
the impact of disaster on poor people's livelihoods. This is recognised
by DFID and reflected in our policies which aim to:
(i) enhance the effectiveness of the international
system that carries out work on disaster preparedness (this includes
UNDP, the World Bank Prevention Consortium, the International
Federation of the Red Cross, and the Pan-American Health Organisation);
(ii) ensure that disaster preparedness principles
are integrated into country specific policies and plans, including
our own country programmes, national policies within developing
countries, and co-ordinated efforts such as PRSPs.
How are resources split between funding for relief
operations related to climate disaster and funding for DMP activities
like early warning systems or drought proofing, for example?
10. The two funding channels are separate. Disaster
relief is funded on the basis of response to need, as disasters
occur, so this cannot be constrained to an annual budget. During
the financial year 2001-02 DFID's Conflict and Humanitarian Affairs
Department (CHAD) spent £6 million on disaster preparedness.
In some cases country programmes have added to this funding from
Has there been a shift away from DMP with the
focus more on relief work?
11. No. On the contrary DFID's commitment to
disaster preparedness has increased since the 1997 White Paper
commitment that "disaster preparedness and prevention
will be an integral part of our development co-operation programme.
We shall work with disaster-prone partner countries to develop
systems for the better management of man-made hazards and, where
feasible, natural hazards, so as to reduce their human impacts."
12. A tangible example of this commitment is
flooding in Mozambique. Following the devastating effects of the
first floods in 2000, early warning systems were implemented.
The second floods were not as severe, but the reduced threat to
livelihoods was significant.
There is a great deal of discussion about mainstreaming
climate change and integrating it fully into policy considerations.
Can this really be achieved globally within the current negotiating
framework which seems dominated by the concerns of the north and
is largely mitigation focussed? Is adaptation going to be adequately
considered at a global level and will there be sufficient funding
for adaptation activities or will this be limited largely to capacity
13. DFID believes that the impacts of climate
change are fundamental to the development prospects of many poor
countries; hence adaptation measures need to be placed firmly
in the context of national poverty reduction strategies and other
14. While the problem of GHG emissions is a
global issue requiring collective resolution, the responsibility
to implement measures to address its impact (ie, adaptation) most
effectively lie with individual sovereign states. The extent to
which adaptation measures require a global framework or are indeed
influenced by the climate change negotiationswith the exception
of developing country requests for financial supportis
15. Determining the costs of adaptation measures
is difficult. It is hard to separate the truly additional costs
of responding to climate change from those required to effectively
manage "normal" climatic variability. In this respect,
many of the measures required to address climate change are the
same as those required to reduce the vulnerability of poor countries
and poor people to normal climatic variability and other shocks
to their livelihoods.
16. Many of the most important adaptation measures
are not necessarily capital intensive. Capacity building to understand
the impact of climate change and identify the best way of adapting
to through appropriate policies and measures may in fact be a
highly valuable and the most appropriate use of financial resources.
In Bangladesh the recorded reduction in deaths from successive
cyclones may reflect better prediction and response measures rather
than investment in improved sea defences and other structures.
In other parts of Africa resilience of the agriculture sector
could be much improved through better policies that encourage
effective investment in land management and drought resistant
What is DFID doing to support the development
of NAPAs and does there need to be some framework or guidance
for developing countries on what a NAPA should include?
17. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) recognises the specific needs and special situation of
least developed country (LDC) parties to the Convention. National
Action Plans for Adaptation (NAPA) to, "meet the urgent and
immediate adaptation needs of the LDCs" was an early Convention
response to this need. Guidelines for the preparation of NAPAs
already exist and financial assistance for their preparation is
available through the Global Environment Facility.
18. In recognition of the importance of developing
country issues, the UNFCCC at its seventh meeting of the Conference
of the Parties (COP) agreed to establish a least developed countries
expert group. This group comprises 12 expertsincluding
a DFID representative, having recognized competence and appropriate
skills. It is mandated to assist in the development of NAPAs through
performing the following functions:
(i) to provide technical guidance and advice
on the preparation of and the implementation strategy of NAPAs
upon request by LDC parties;
(ii) to serve in an advisory capacity to
the LDCs for the preparation and strategy for implementation of
(iii) to advise on capacity-building needs
for the preparation and implementation of NAPAs and to provide
appropriate recommendations, recognising the Capacity Development
Initiative of the GEF and other relevant capacity-building initiatives;
(iv) to facilitate the exchange of information
and to promote synergies (both regional and between various multilateral
environmental conventions) in the preparation and in the implementation
strategies for sustainable development; and
(v) to advise on the mainstreaming of NAPAs
in development plans and national strategies for sustainable development.
19. The group is also mandated to provide input
into the review (and possible revision) of the existing NAPA guidelines
at UNFCCC's COP 8 to be held in Delhi in November 2002. In addition
to participating in the group DFID is financially supporting its
20. DFID's key aim through its participation
is to ensure that NAPA's become an effective part of a mainstreamed
response to climate change. Experience with other similar (action
plans) such as those prepared in respect of biodiversity and desertification
is that they have been somewhat abstract assessments of a situation:
technically competent but of limited effective use and rarely
acknowledged by policy makers. We are conscious of the need to
avoid the same happening again.
Much of the detailed planning and policy making
on disaster mitigation and preparedness needs to happen at a local
or community level but much of the information on climate change
impact exists only at a global or national level. How can the
gap be bridged? What can be done to ensure that those involved
in planning and policy making at local level have access to appropriate,
accurate information? In responding to crises, how does DFID ensure
that it helps to build local capacity and resilience? What emphasis
does DFID place on training local communities in disaster mitigation
21. The IPCC uses global and regional climate
models for its predictions. While these provide valuable information
in scientific fora, this information needs to be available and
accessible in order to inform adaptation policies and plans.
22. DFID, together with the FCO and UNDP, are
funding the Hadley Centre, in the UK Met Office to prepare a portable
regional climate change (RCM) model. This model runs off a laptop
computer and can therefore be transferred between local technical
institutes, meteorological centres etc. The model supplies sufficiently
high-resolution data for prediction of temperature and rainfall
on a national and sub-national scale. This data can then be interpreted
to inform adaptation programmes, both in terms of disaster preparedness
and longer-term development planning, e.g. analysing how water
availability will affect irrigation and agriculture.
23. The RCM is being developed with local implementation
capacity as a fundamental principle. Bangladesh has been selected
as one of the pilot sites and in autumn 2002 will benefit from
local training workshops to enhance capacity to interpret the
data available from the RCM. Training will allow government policymakers
and local organisations such as Surface Water Modelling Centre,
Bangladesh Meteorological Department, the Flood Forecasting and
Warning Centre under the Bangladesh Water Development Board, and
the Environmental and GIS Support Project for Water Sector Planning
to utilise their own skills for more specific sector level predictions
and analysis. In collaboration with the installation of the regional
climate change model, DFID is supporting specific research between
UK and Bangladesh hydrological institutes to examine the implications
of changes in climate and sea level on water resources availability
and coastal flooding.
Should there be a climate impact assessment for
development projects in the same way that there are environmental
24. DFID is currently reviewing its environmental
screening procedures, and within this exercise will consider how
climate change impacts should be incorporated into the process.
How can work on sustainable and poverty development
planning, which exists at a mainly national level, take account
of adaptation processes that exist within communities?
25. DFID is committed to country-owned poverty
reduction processes. A healthy example of this process can take
into account the national-local balance; firstly by ensuring that
the development, implementation and monitoring of the PRS is country
driven, with governments in the lead of a genuinely participatory
process, and also by promoting partnerships between different
sectors of society, including informal networks that often develop
in the context of poor people adapting to change. As is the case
in any country, local needs can be met if responsibilities are
devolved, particularly when implementing policies based on need
in a specific geographical area.
How should adaptation and mitigation strategies
be linked in developing countries?
26. Mitigation and adaptation are two sides
of the climate change coin, but it is not clear that strategies
in respect of either can be brought together, or should be seen
as needing to be brought together.
27. Mitigation is key to reducing the extent
and speed of climate change. If unabated, increasing GHG emissions
will result in significant change to global climate with the worst
impacts being felt by the poorest in the world's poorest countries.
Success with mitigation is therefore a major development policy
issue. However, with relatively few exceptions (notably India,
China, Brazil and Mexico), few developing countries make any significant
contribution to global emissions. Mitigation is consequently unlikely
to be an issue for most developing countries but their need to
implement effective adaptation measures most definitely is.
28. Where mitigation does concern developing
countriesin particular the possibility of extending commitments
under any future Kyoto arrangements to include the large developing
countries increasingly responsible for global GHG emissionsthese
measures need not of themselves be associated with any adaptation
needs or measures adopted by those countries. It is important
however to note that many GHG emissions reducing policies and
measures can have positive developmental impacts. For example
a shift to cleaner fuels can significantly reduce the prevalence
of air pollution a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many
developing countries. This has certainly been the case in China.
The use of contraction and convergence as a way
forward in climate negotiations
29. Current UK policy on mitigation is focussed
on bringing the Kyoto Protocol into force as a starting point
for further more significant reductions in emissions. DFID agrees
with this objective, but accepts that the target level of emissions
reductions in the first commitment period under Kyoto (a 5 per
cent reduction of 1990 emissions during the period 2008-12) is
probably inadequate. However, it represents a starting point from
which to make future progress.
30. For a number of years the Global Commons
Institute has advocated the Contraction and Convergence (CC) approach.
Within CC "contraction" refers to the need to reduce
emissions to a level, which will not impact adversely upon the
global climate. This level would represent a global "budget"
of GHG emissions and "convergence" represents the process
by which shares in that budget would be equitably allocated to
all nations on a per capita basis over a period of time. These
allocations would be unrelated to current emissions levels.
31. CC advocates propose that in addition to
its inherent equity, the approach provides the only way of bringing
together developed and developing countries within a single emission
reduction framework. They argue that as Kyoto only addresses developed
country emissions, it is unattractive to many developed countries
that point to the fact that the developing world is an increasingly
important source of emissions and willif current trends
remainbe the major source by 2015. Consequently, it is
claimed that Kyoto's targets are set at an inadequately low level
in order to achieve developed country agreement. Under a CC regime,
the increasing impact of developing country emissions is explicitly
recognised. At the same time, they argue, CC would accommodate
the developing country perspective that their development should
not be held back in order to rectify the damage caused by the
existing rich countries to the global climate.
32. The approach has an intuitive logic, but
it is based on the simple premise that developed countries will
agree to cut their emissions significantly. Regrettably, there
is little evidence of their willingness to do so thus far under
any form of agreement. Time lines for the completion of convergence
have also never been proposed. The concept is therefore interesting
but without agreement from the US in particular (along with other
Kyoto reluctant parties) to agree to major cuts in GHG emissions
under any regime it remains little more than that.
Department for International Development