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Clare Short: We are strongly committed to mobilising the international development system to meet the Millennium Development Goal of reducing child and infant mortality by two thirds by 2015. Two million child deaths could be averted by improving routine immunisation coverage and introducing appropriate new vaccines in poor countries. We are providing substantial support to this work through the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisations (GAVI) and work closely in
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partnership with the World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNICEF. This must be underpinned by strengthened health systems, better health worker skills and better caring practices within the home and community, and we have committed over £1 billion since 1997 to help governments with this task.
As two thirds of all infant deaths occur in the first month of life, DFID is taking an active role in promoting newborn and maternal health as a priority within the international health agenda. We work in a range of sectors, in particular water and sanitation and female education which also impact on mortality rates.
Clare Short: We have worked hard, and with some success, to promote reform of the Community's aid programmes and policies. There have been a number of important steps forward, in particular a new Development Policy focused on the overall objective of poverty elimination and the Commission's management reforms. Early next year the Commission will publish the first Annual Report on Community External Assistance. While the content of this report is likely to reflect the weaknesses of existing programmes, we believe this improved transparency and accountability will help all concerned to drive forward the implementation of the reform agenda.
24. Mr. Austin Mitchell: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much of her Department's spending on humanitarian and other reliefs in Afghanistan and Pakistan is (a) new additional spending and (b) diverted from other budgets. 
Clare Short: Since 11 September, we have set aside £40 million in additional funds for immediate humanitarian assistance to Afghans in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries. £25 million came from DFlD's reserve and £15 million from the Treasury central reserve.
I have also allocated an additional £26 million for Pakistan, which is supplementary to the annual £15 million programme for poverty reduction in Pakistan. £4 million was allocated from my department's Asia performance fund, £7 million came from DFlD's reserve, and £15 million came from Treasury central reserve.
Clare Short: We are at the forefront of efforts to enhance developing countries' capacity to trade. In the White Paper on Globalisation we undertook to double our commitment over the next three years. We have recently pledged a £20 million package of trade related capacity
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building which will take us towards this goal. The capacity of developing countries to trade can be enhanced through five distinct forms of support: policy research and trade strategy development, participatory policy formulation processes, co-ordination of trade policy with national development strategies, participation in international trade negotiations and implementation of trade agreements.
We are providing trade related technical assistance through three main channels. The first is institutional supportfor example, the advisory centre on WTO law, which provides legal support to developing countries pursuing cases in the dispute settlement mechanism. The second is support through multilateral institutionsfor example, working with the World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, United Nations Development Programme, World Trade Organisation and International Trade Centre to prioritise trade within development programmes and strategies. The third is bilateral and regional support, for example, DFlD's Africa Trade and Poverty programme which aims to help developing countries analyse the linkages between trade, poverty and sustainable economic and social development.
28. Mr. Alan Simpson: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development which developing countries' domestic agricultural systems are threatened by subsidised food dumping from the industrial world; which countries bear responsibility for such dumping; and what representations she has made on this matter. 
Clare Short: Many developing countries suffer from subsidised food being dumped on their markets. Owing to the complexity of subsidies and the widespread use of subsidies in industrialised nations, it is difficult to determine exactly which developing countries are being harmed by dumped subsidised food and to what extent. However, the EU is one of the principal users of subsidies. For this and other reasons the Government are strongly committed to fundamental reform of the CAP.
Mr. Yeo: To ask the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport when she last met representatives of (a) each of the national museums and galleries sponsored by her Department, (b) the British Hospitality Association, (c) the Football Association, (d) the Rugby Football Union, (e) the British Weight Lifters' Association, (f) the Lawn Tennis Association, (g) Theatres in Trust, (h) Equity, (i) PACT, (j) regional arts boards, (k) regional tourist boards, (l) the BBC, (m) ITV, (n) ITN, (o) the British Tourist Authority, (p) the English Tourism Council, (q) the Football Foundation, (r) the New Opportunities Fund, (s) English Heritage, (t) the Communities Fund, (u) UK Sport, (v) Sport England, (w) the Arts Council for England, (x) the Film Council, (y) Wembley National Stadium Ltd., (z) the National Campaign for the Arts and (aa) Sky Television. 
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Those I have met in person and at the Department are (a) each of the national museums and galleries sponsored by my Department (18 July), (b) the British Hospitality Association (10 October), (c) the Football Association (25 September), (j) regional arts boards (16 June), (k) regional tourist boards (10 October), (l) the BBC (13 September), (n) ITN Network (30 October), (o) the British Tourist Authority (10 October), (p) the English Tourism Council (10 October), (r) the New Opportunities Fund (21 June), (t) the Communities Fund (21 June), (u) UK Sport (31 October), (v) Sport England (4 October), (w) the Arts Council for England (19 June), (x) The Film Council (28 June) and (aa) Sky Television (23 July).
Other Ministers in my Department have also met many of these organisations on various occasions. They have also met representatives of the other organisations listed. In addition I have met representatives of many of these bodies at events outside my Department.
Tessa Jowell: Information about the number of ministerial appointments to public bodies is included in the Cabinet Office's annual report, "Public Bodies". Copies of this are placed in the Library of the House and the report is published on the Cabinet Office's Internet website. The next edition of "Public Bodies", which will include numbers of appointments at 31 March 2001, will be published around the end of the year.
I am directly responsible for 395 appointments to public bodies. Since 7 June, I have made 60 such appointments. These figures do not include those appointments to public bodies sponsored by my Department where my role is to advise on appointments made by the Prime Minister or through him by Her Majesty The Queen.
Mr. Greenway: To ask the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport if she will make a statement on the funds made available by (a) her Department and (b) other agencies for the marketing of England as a tourist destination. 
Dr. Howells: No provision was made in the Public Expenditure Plans for the marketing of England as a tourist destination by any agency. We did, however, provide £3.8 million of additional resources to the English Tourism Council this spring to provide information services and promotion to British people about England as a tourism destination. This was part of the Government's response to the Foot and Mouth outbreak. £2.6 million of this money was spent on marketing and promotion at England or regional level.
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£49.7 million in total has been provided to the British Tourist Authority this year to market Britain, including England, abroad to tourists. Regional Development Agencies and local government also direct public funding towards marketing their parts of England.
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