Memorandum from CARE for Education (EY
ES1. Children are individualswhole,
unique people entrusted to their parents and society. The welfare
and needs of children must have first priority in decisions about
early years education.
ES2. Parents, both mothers and fathers,
are the crucial touchstones for a child and retain the responsibility
for their child's education, even though this will at times be
delegated to others. Parents need real choice in early years education,
having the freedom to decide what is the best environment for
their children at such a crucial stage. A wide variety of settings
need to be available, from toddler groups to play groups, nursery
schools to school reception classes and to simply being at home.
ES3. Children should not be ushered into
formal education at too early an age. Early years education must
be centred on learning through play, without the pressure to perform.
A child's first experience of education must be positive and enabling,
building a firm foundation for future school life.
ES4. Children reach statutory school age
the term after their fifth birthday. Pre-school education and
environments, in all their forms, need to be seen as preparation
for later school life, not an extension of school to younger children.
Statutory school places at a particular school should not be dependent
on earlier enrolment in the nursery.
ES5. CARE's evidence focuses on asking five
key questions which seek to provide a framework for analysing
aspects of early years educationin particular childcare
policies, the newly revised Early Learning Goals and the outworking
of early years policy in practice. The following questions are
addressed within the evidence:
(1) Do the policies address the needs of
children or economic priorities?
(2) Are there real choices for parents and
(3) What are the effects of policies on providers
of childcare and early years education?
(4) What are the lessons from other countries?
(5) Are we enabling children to learn or
exerting pressure to perform?
1.1 CARE (Christian Action Research and
Education) is an organisation concerned to see national, European
law and public policy on the value of marriage and the family
reflect Christian ethical principles. CARE is also involved in
practical caring initiatives, the organisation of conferences
and seminars, and publication of educational and research materials.
Over 100,000 Christians throughout the UK regularly receive information
and support CARE work.
1.2 CARE's Public Policy Department acts
as a think-tank on ethical issues relating to the family, education
and medical ethics. We are also a point of reference and information
on these issues for Christian supporters across the church denominations
in the UK. We are able to keep interested supporters informed
about developments in family policy and research through our regular
publications. We also brief Parliamentarians as relevant matters
are considered in Westminster, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Brussels.
1.3 CARE for Education, a department of
CARE, has produced a number of educational resources for primary
and secondary schools. Most notable of these is Make Love Last,
a sex education video now purchased by 45 per cent of the UK's
secondary schools. We have also produced a CD-ROM and video called
Growing Up Together for primary school personal and social education.
One of the department's specific interests is early years. We
hosted two conferences in March and October 1999 on Early Years
Care and Education which were attended by over 300 different parents
and early years practitioners. A third conference is planned for
June 2000. Feedback from discussion groups that met during the
conferences has been incorporated into this evidence. A training
day for Christian early years workers is also planned for April
1.4 Ann Holt, the Director of CARE for Education
is a special advisor to the Secretary of State for Education on
School Governance and Management, and is an Adjudicator for School
Admissions and Organisation. She is currently on secondment to
the DfEE for part of her time, working on Performance Management.
2.1 CARE's consideration of Early Years
issues arose out of previous education work, views expressed by
parents and practitioners, and also the increased political interest
in childcare within the areas of social security, tax and practical
initiatives. In particular the Welfare to Work policies introduced
by the New Labour Government brought a renewed and welcome political
focus to the area of childcare and early years education.
2.2 The development of childcare and early
years education policies are much-needed for the nurture of children
and in order for many families to effectively juggle work and
home. This development has, however, raised several questions
and concerns among parents, professionals, policy-makers and early
years practitioners. These questions, concerns and ideas have
been demonstrated perhaps most tangibly to CARE in the large numbers
of people who have attended our Early Years Conferences held in
different parts of the country.
2.3 The conferences were preceded and accompanied
by CARE's written responses to the Green Paper, Meeting the
Childcare Challenge and the QCA's Review of the Desirable
Outcomes in which key areas for consideration were identified
2.4 In the following evidence to the Education
and Employment Committee's Inquiry, we seek to draw attention
to various areas of progress and concern. These areas have been
identified among parents, practitioners and policy-makers with
regard to the content of early years education, the assessment
of teaching and learning, and the appropriate age at which formal
schooling should start.
2.5 CARE's evidence seeks to cover issues
relating to childcare and early years education, recognising that
support, care and education within the early years are integrated.
The evidence will focus on asking five key questions which seek
to provide a framework for analysing aspects of early years educationin
particular childcare policies, the newly revised Early Learning
Goals and the outworking of early years policy in practice. We
suggest that where possible the five questions be incorporated
into the Inquiry's approach to examining aspects of early years
2.6 CARE appreciates this opportunity to
contribute towards the Committee's consideration of this complex
and diverse area, and looks forward to the report of the Inquiry's
3.1 In order to contribute to the Committee's
consideration of aspects of early years care and education, we
pose and address five key questions below.
Q1 Do childcare and early years education
policies address the needs of children or economic priorities?
Q1.1 It is clear that childcare provision,
in all its forms, is invaluable to children and parents, and the
increased attention given to this issue is very welcome.
Q1.2 However, the political efforts to fill
the so-called "childcare gap" have raised concerns regarding
the drive behind some childcare and early years education policies,
and the impact of this drive on practice. Are they primarily designed
to fulfil the real needs of young children, or do they mould childcare
into work-orientated time structures?
Q1.3 As policies are developed and implemented,
it is important that the following question is consistently asked
"Who or what has priority in childcare and early years education
policiesparticularly within provision which involves children
being placed in and out of home care for long periods of time?
Q1.4 The DfEE's Green Paper, Meeting the
Childcare Challenge, was published in the summer of 1998, and
outlined the Government's approach to childcare officially for
the first time since taking office. As a foundational document
for subsequent policy developments, it provides an important source
of factual and ideological information, and reveals some of the
factors that have shaped policy. While emphases may have changed
and evolved since 1998, it is valuable to analyse points made
within the Green Paper.
Q1.5 In paragraph 2.2 of Meeting the Childcare
Challenge, it is stated that "there is clear evidence that
good quality daycare in the earliest years has long-term benefits
for children's social and intellectual development". No sources
of this evidence feature within the paper, and this is the only
form of childcare that is given explicit endorsement. In a similar
way it is stated that pre-school, breakfast and homework clubs
will "provide development and educational opportunities for
Q1.6 These claims that daycare, by implication
long hours daycare, in the earliest years is good for children
are challenged by much research. A Demos report states that "a
body of research material suggests that very early experience
and long hours of out of homecare may lead to insecure attachment
and potential problems for some children"
Q1.7 Elsewhere in the Green Paper, it is
stated that "our economy will prosper if more skilled and
capable people are able to take up job opportunities because they
have access to good quality, affordable and accessible childcare".
In addition, one of the two outcomes for testing the success of
the National Childcare Strategy is "more parents with the
chance to take up work, education or training because they have
access to childcare".
Q1.8 In tandem with childcare policies,
other policies such as the New Deal for Lone Parents have been
validated by arguments which state that 90 per cent of mothers
want to be in paid work. However, this figure is often quoted
without clarifying the fact that, broadly speaking, woman with
young children want to work, but only 28 per cent say soon, and
63 per cent say when their children are older.
Q1.9 It is important for wage-earning to
be encouraged where possible. However, it is disconcerting to
hear some officials refer to the "dignity" that will
be regained by many primary care-givers, usually mothers, by returning
to the paid workforce. Such ideas raise questions about how much
value is placed on raising children as an important job in society.
It can appear that raising children, and nurturing their relational
and educational development, is only regarded as work when someone
else is paid to do it.
Q1.10 Facilitating work for parents emerges
as a prevailing factor in the development of childcare policies.
For some parents who are primary care-givers, usually women, paid
work for the majority of the time is either a necessity or a desired
choice. Therefore, it is important that external childcare provision
addresses this reality. However, the Government's emphasis on
paid employment as a route out of poverty and welfare dependency
has meant that in the process of implementing this policy, childcare
has often been referred to by officials and campaigners as a "barrier
Q1.11 Terms such as "barrier to work"
consign the care of children into an abstract categorysomething
to be sorted out in order to achieve another end, and do not convey
the fact that very young people are involved. There is a widely-held
concern that claims of advantages for child development from daycare
use are often used as sugar to help the medicine of back-to-work
and "economy prospering" priorities go down easily.
Q1.12 The analysis, development and enactment
of policies relating to the education and care of young children
must be shaped by the prioritisation of the unique relational
and attention needs of children at this early stage of life. Economic
ends must not dominate policies that affect the care and education
Q.2. Are there real choices for parents and
Q2.1 Different families have different childcare
needs and expectations, according to their own domestic and work
situations. In order for parents to choose care and education
environments that address the needs of their children, it is essential
for diversity to flourish within the forms of childcare and early
years support and education available.
Q2.2 Paragraph ES7 of Meeting the Childcare
Challenge states that, "parents will always have the primary
responsibility for the care and well-being of their children.
It is up to the parents to decide what sort of childcare they
want for their children".
Q2.3 Within childcare policies, it appears
that the proposals offer substantial verbal or practical support
to certain options. For instance, the option of using paid registered
childcare for the majority of the time is upheld implicitly above
others. The childcare tax credit can only be used in conjunction
with registered childcare providers. In effect this means that
there is little practical support allocated for the option of
one or both parents, and other family or informal carers, looking
after their own children for the majority of the time. The assumption
appears to be that those parents who choose to forgo an income
in order to care for their children for most of the time can afford
to do so. This is not necessarily the case, but the desire to
be heavily involved in the care, development and education of
their young children directs their choice.
Q2.4 The fact that the childcare tax credit
can only be used in conjunction with paid registered childcare
also adds weight to the message commonly received by parentsthat
childcare professionals are the best people to educate and raise
their children for most of the time. "Good quality"
childcare is related to external care, beyond family and friends.
An example of this message is found in the Early Learning Goals
document which states that "above all, high quality care
and education by practitioners will lead to effective learning
and development for young children".
This bias, although well-intentioned, can lead to parents feeling
obliged to seek out "professional" settings at an early
stage in their child's developmentabove concentrating on
their own involvement and educational influencesin order
to secure "quality" input into their children.
Q2.5 The potential limitation of parental
choice can also be more subtlefor example, in proposals
outlining the Early Years Development Partnerships, parents are
found low down in a list of "childcare experts" where
local authorities top the list.
Q2.6 Within early years education, many
parents of three and four year old children feel as though they
have no real choice with regard to where they place their children.
It is often evident that emphasis is given to the schooling model
of early years education. The existence of a free part-time place
for all four years olds had led to large numbers of parents sending
their children to school-based nursery units or reception classes.
Q2.7 Many parents do not actually want to
do thisthey would often prefer more flexibility in terms
of content and hours spent at the setting by their childrenbut
feel pressurised to follow this course of action. This pressure
can be attributed to the fear of not gaining a place for their
child at the start of compulsory education, and also because this
schooling model is what is presented as the best thing for children.
There have been cases, such as that of a mother of four year old
twins, where parents have been told by local councils that their
children had to move up into the reception class from the nursery,
or their compulsory school places would be lost altogether.
Q2.8 Within the Early Learning Goals document
published by the QCA and the DfEE, it is encouraging to see the
endorsement of partnership between parents and practitioners.
The document asserts that "parents are children's first and
most enduring educators...,
and that a successful partnership needs a "two-way flow of
information, knowledge and expertise". It is encouraging
to see that the significance of parental involvement is acknowledged
Q2.9 Within early years settings it is essential
that the input, views and involvement of parents are incorporated
and encouraged. But in order for parents to be able to make child-centred
choices, as they decide initially how their children should be
cared for and educated, it is vital that all early years options
are supported equitably. This consists of equally supporting those
options that allow for flexibility in terms of time spent at home
with parents, and diversity within the content of early years
care and education available.
Q3. What are the effects of policies on providers
of childcare and early years education?
Q3.1 Taking the example of universal places
for four year olds, it is apparent that such policies have had
a significant impact on all providers of care and education. Maintained
schools provide two-thirds of the free places for four year olds.
In 1998, 55 per cent of four year olds were taught in primary
school reception classes where a class of 30 will often have one
In effect the commitment to provide all four year olds with "nursery
education" appears to have been met largely by putting under-5s
into primary schools.
Q3.2 Schools often do not have the funding
to equip themselves for the specialised needs of four year olds.
Despite Government affirmation of the right of parents to defer
reception places, local authorities are under pressure not to
allow parents to defer because they receive no funding for children
not at schoolthey simply cannot afford to let children
start later. Nursery and reception classes have often been overcrowded,
but in the words of one primary head teacher "at the
end of the day I need to balance the books.
Q3.3. We welcome the fact that infant school
classes sizes are being regulated as a result of recent legislation.
However, because a state school's funding depends on the number
of children on the school roll, smaller class sizes and the consequent
reduction in funding is already, in some cases, leading to fewer
classroom assistants being employed. We recognise that the Government
has provided funds for popular schools to build more classrooms,
but this does not help schools where there is no room to expand,
nor does it facilitate smaller ratios of children to adults within
a class. This factor is particularly significant for children
in early years classes.
Q3.4 In 1995, a Social Market Foundation
foretold the impact that policy would have on the voluntary sector,
in particular playgroups. In 1995, one in four of all four year
olds attended playgroups that were mostly run by volunteers, usually
parents themselves, and places were offered at cost. The report
predicted that playgroups would be under serious threat if free
places were introduced, as most people would choose school places.
Four year olds then accounted for 75 per cent of all children
at playgroups; therefore the income for playgroups would be drastically
Q3.5 The authors of the Social Market Foundation
report calculated that if all four year olds at playgroup in 1995
were to go to state nurseries in preference to playgroups, the
cost to the Government would be £600 million. It was also
predicted that the knock-on effect of such policies would be to
extend entitlement to three year olds. The paper added that with
the disappearance of playgroups would go the spirit of voluntarism,
the benefits of parental involvement and learning through play.
According to many practitioners and parents this all seems to
be taking effect at the present time.
Q3.6 Policies such as the childcare tax
credit mean that informal care from friends and family can be
undermined. Much of this mutual support takes place in areas of
high social needwhether material or relationalwhere
families look after each others' children. The childcare tax credit
encourages a switch to formal non-family care, which will effectively
undermine the enrichment of community and family relationships.
Q3.7 Government initiatives such as the
Sure Start programme place a welcome emphasis on supporting parents
and families, and encouraging parents to "have positive involvement
and enjoyment in their children's development .
This emphasis is important for all familiesacross the social
spectrum and across the range of settings preferred by different
Q3.8 It is important for young children
to be cared for and educated by people who understand their needs
and potential. However, the content and implication of some policies
tend to present "professional" childcare and early years
education as the best thing for children. This has an impact on
parents as the providers of care. Within the Early Learning Goals
document, it is stated that "Young children will have had
a wide range of different experiences...when they join a setting
or school at the age of three, four of five. They need well-trained
and qualified practitioners and a well-resourced and planned curriculum
to take their learning forward...".
Q3.9 Such statements give the predominant
message that qualifications are needed to provide good quality
care and education. Consequently, the potential emerges for parents
to be less interested and involved in the education and development
of their child, which will increasingly be seen as something separate,
and something that is done by other people.
Q3.10 It is vital that a diverse range of
childcare providers are identified and supported through policyparticularly
informal carers, local volunteers and above all, parents. The
expertise and value of such providers of early years care and
education must be acknowledged within policy.
Q4 What are the lessons from other countries?
Q4.1 With regard to childcare provision
which is centred around long hours of daycare, there are lessons
to be learned from other countries. In the 1970s in the Netherlands,
the model of two earner families with children in daycare was
actively pursued and facilitated. There followed a decade or so
of family fiscal policies that encouraged parents to take up paid
employment wherever possible. However, in 1996, 70 per cent of
Dutch parents stated that the growing number of dual earner couples
was undesirable in the context of raising children, and that the
majority preferred arrangements with the maximum of in-home care.
The earlier model is what many British families are being urged
towards nowhowever, Dutch families tried this and decided
that it was not as desirable as having more home-based care along
with flexible external care.
Q4.2 In Finland cash benefits are offered
to parents of under-threes, as the alternative to a place in a
childcare project. In Norway parents who choose to stay and work
at home caring for their children gain pension points equivalent
to the average income. There is also a two year "time account"
which involves a more flexible use of paid maternity leave.
Q4.3 In Norway there is a ten year compulsory
school which aims to provide age-appropriate education. It consists
of three main stages, the initial stage starting at the age of
six. This stage is based on the traditions of kindergarten and
school. Education is intended to nourish children's natural sense
of wonder, and emphasis is placed throughout this stage on learning
through play. Classes of six year olds containing more than 18
pupils have two teachers.
Q4.4 Children in other Scandinavian countries
such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Iceland start their education
in nurseries where they are encouraged to learn by play and discovery.
They are not taught anything of the three Rs and instead learn
about sounds, shapes and co-ordination until they start primary
school at seven. All of these countries score in the top ten for
Q4.5 In Sweden the starting age for compulsory
school education is seven and in France, Italy, Japan and Switzerland
it is six. It is also six in Germany, but children are held back
if they are not ready, in Italy it is six. In Japan and Switzerland
the starting age is also six. If standards of literacy and numeracy
of Japanese and Swiss children are examined by the end of the
first year of formal schooling, they are level pegging with British
children, who start school earlier.
Q4.6 There are consistent messages about
flexible home-related early years childcare, the importance of
play, and a less prescribed curriculum which emerge from the experience
of European and other countries.
Q5. Are we enabling children to learn or exerting
pressure to perform?
Q5.1 The Government has set out its determination
to raise standards in schools, in particular with regard to literacy
and numeracy, and has stressed the importance of early years education
in "laying secure foundations for children's learning".
These intentions are welcome in theory, but questions are raised
regarding whether the methods used to fulfil these aims are actual
good for children.
Q5.2 Chris Woodhead, the Chief Inspector
of Schools, described the Government's strategies for improving
standards as "pragmatic, unsentimental and hard-nosed"
in his Annual Lecture in 1999. Improving standards within schools
has a clear impact on pre-school children, as parents and practitioners
see the development of an increasingly close relationship between
the two stages of education. The debate surrounding formal education,
testing for children of all ages, "performance criteria",
a more prescriptive curriculum and target setting in the early
years has led to much comment from a range of educationalists.
Q5.3 Some commentators and practitioners
have reservations about the introduction of the "foundation
stage" outlined in the Early Learning Goals document. The
introduction of a foundation stage can be perceived as the National
Curriculum extending "downwards", with the consequence
that the pre-school years become more closely related to later
school experience, and therefore more related to formal learning.
Whilst the reception year does need to lead into Key Stage 1,
the former arrangement (desirable learning outcomes) allowed schools
to arrange their curriculum as they saw fit. In many schools the
reception year has often been a "year of grace" to help
children to adjust to school life without the pressure of performing
Q5.4 The increasingly perceived links between
pre-school and later school education has led to much concern
being expressed about children being pushed to attain higher targets
than is appropriate for their age. Despite an emphasis on the
fact that Early Learning Goals are intended to provide guidance
rather than hard and fast tests, they can be perceived as the
Q5.5 With an increased emphasis on "achieving
goals", "making progress" and "succeeding"
within early years education, there has been a noticeable public
focus on facilitating the academic progress of younger children.
Concern regarding this was expressed at the annual conference
of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers where incidents were
related of nursery class parents wanting to prepare their children
for SATS and of parents of four year olds employing tutors to
help them to keep up.
Q5.6 There is clearly a research debate
taking place about whether levels of achievement at the end of
the reception year are accurate indicators of academic attainment
in later life. Professor Charles Desforges, Head of Education
at the University of Exeter, has said that American evidence shows
that whenever you have a testing regime there are children who
come bottom, and this in effect leads to much anxiety, alienation
and depression. He believes that there should be assessment that
gives the learner information and not grades.
Q5.7 Professor Christine Pascal of University
College, Worcester, says it is clear that social, emotional and
intellectual development for young children cannot be separated.
In this sense she believe that the most important aspects of early
learning are to do with building up self-esteem, self-confidence
aspirations, motivation and socialisationcertainly not
a narrow set of targets which are likely to be counterproductive.
Q5.8 The Early Learning Goals list such
aims for the foundation stage as developing "personal, social
and emotional wellbeing", "social skills", "knowledge
and understanding of the world" and "creative development".
These aims are welcome, and are essential parts of a child's natural
development. Toddler groups, play groups and nurseries have a
key role to play in enhancing such skills and awareness. However,
it is our belief that young children benefit most significantly
at this stage from dedicated adult attention. They learn primarily
from adult role models and from copying what they see adults do,
alongside peer activities. Three year olds interact with each
other, but need adult help to model behaviour. It is our concern
that children who are put in larger group settings with fewer
adult helpers per child will not gain from dedicated adult attention.
Q5.9 Studies in the US following children
into adult life show that formal teaching at pre-school age is
less useful long-term than informal nursery or flexible curricula.
Caroline Sharp, an early years expert, has said that there is
no compelling educational rationale for the statutory school age
of five or for the practice of admitting children of four into
reception classes. .
Britain needs to learn from the experience of other countries
where formal education begins later in a child's life, and where
the early years are a time for nurturing a child's developing
sense of curiosity, awe and creativity.
Q5.10 In the Early Learning Goals document,
it is stated within the principles for early years education that
"Early years experience should build on what children already
know and can do. It should also encourage a positive attitude
and disposition to learn and aim to give protection from early
This principle is important in that it encourages engaging with
children on an individual levelrecognising and building
on what a child is already capable of. We would agree that it
is very important for children not to be labelled as "failures"
at any early age. However, "protection from early failure"
could perhaps conceal the fact that making mistakes and learning
from them, in a supportive environment, is an essential part of
Q5.11 It is important that in all aspects
of early years care and education, there is a continued emphasis
on enabling children to learn and develop at a natural pace, that
is reflective of their individual characters and needs. Moreover,
it is vital that enabling children to learn does not transform
into pressure for them to perform.
4.1 Many of the views that are expressed
above are held by a range of agencies and individuals. The public
debate surrounding early years education and care has provided
an effective forum for such views to be shared, disseminated and
considered by parents, practitioners, the general public and Government
alike. The latest QCA and DfEE document, Early Learning Goals,
reflects the fact that some of the concerns and priorities outlined
above have been considered and incorporated within the development
of early years guidance.
4.2 As early years policy continues to be
the focus of analysis development and implementation, it is important
that several factors are kept at the centre of all discussion:
Evidence suggests that rigorous target
setting, testing and formal education too early are not beneficial
for the emotional health of children, nor their long-term learning.
This must be taken into account at all stages of policy development
Parents and policy-makers must check
their approaches to educationdo we incline towards scores,
standards and neatly packaged achievements or failures? Young
children need environments and atmospheres where they are able
to flourish without being boxed into success or failure.
Is there a prevailing assumption
within our culture that producing skilled adult workers involves
teaching those skills as early as possible? There must be a wide-ranging,
flexible and holistic approach to the laying of educational foundations
during the early years, which focuses on encouraging self-confidence,
wonder and positive relationships.
The establishment of secure and nurturing
adult-child relationships must not be superseded by premature
academic structures, or dominated by the pressure for primary
care-giver parents to go out to paid work.
4.3 In conclusion, we are encouraged by
the attention that is being given to this critical stage of a
child's personal and educational development. We emphasise the
need for real parental choice in early years education, and for
parents to be encouraged in their crucial role during this stage.
We trust that an emphasis on learning through play will be retained
within early years education.
4.4 Our hope is that young children will
thrive through their unpressured experiences before school, and
will have the necessary foundation of security and confidence
to achieve well in all aspects of life and education once they
start formal education.
CARE for Education
31 Appendix 4, Time Out: The Costs and Benefits of
Paid Parental Leave, Demos 1997. Back
Patricia Morgan, Who Needs Parents? IEA-also quoted by
Melanie Phillips in The Sex Change State, Social Market
p5, Early Learning Goals, QCA and DfEE, October 1999. Back
Paragraphs ES10 and 5, 10, Meeting the Childcare Challenge. Back
p17, Early Learning Goals, QCA and DfEE, October 1999. Back
DfEE figures quoted in The Independent, 25 February 1999. Back
John Howell, Headteacher of St John's Primary School, Weymouth-featured
in the BBC Panorama Programme of 1998, Failing at Four. Back
niversal Nursery Education and Playgroups, Andrew Cooper
and Roderick Nye, HardData, Social Market Foundation, May 1995. Back
p6, para 2.1 Sure Start-A Guide for Trailblazers, DfEE,
p9, Early Learning Goals, QCA and DfEE, October 1999. Back
p174, Developments in National Family Policies in 1996, European
Growing Up in Norway, The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Children and Family
Growing Up in Norway, ibid. Back
"Hot-house children risk stress", The Guardian, 1 April
Independent Education, 25 February 1999. Back
Observer, 4 October 1998. Back
p5, Early Learning Goals, QCA and DfEE, October 1999. Back